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HP0-M52 exam Dumps Source : HP BSM Operations Manager on UNIX and Linux 9.x

Test Code : HP0-M52
Test Name : HP BSM Operations Manager on UNIX and Linux 9.x
Vendor Name : HP
Q&A : 73 Real Questions

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HP HP BSM Operations Manager

HP Unleashes the vigor of Operational Analytics to Optimize efficiency for Hybrid Environments | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

PALO ALTO, CA--(Marketwire - Nov 27, 2012) - HP ( NYSE : HPQ ) nowadays introduced a new edition of HP business service administration (BSM) application, the first solution of its kind to make use of massive data analytics to improve the performance and availability of company utility throughout cell and hybrid IT environments.

With the increasing use of virtualization and cloud applied sciences, IT organizations not be aware of or control all of the technologies of their environment, making it difficult for purposes and operations teams to foresee talents issues. IT needs a new answer that each predicts the prevalence of wide-spread issues and identifies previously unknown considerations earlier than they take place.

HP BSM grants end-to-end visibility into IT functions and services. With effective actual-time and ancient analytics to computer screen the health of the total IT stack, from company functions and functions to the infrastructure and networks, clients can count on true IT concerns before they turn up.

"In today's advanced hybrid environments, the place business provider availability and efficiency directly correlate to enterprise success, IT companies are searching for new tips on how to carry predictable carrier stages," spoke of Ajei Gopal, senior vp and well-known supervisor, Hybrid and Cloud enterprise Unit, software, HP. "the new HP enterprise carrier administration answer grants end-to-conclusion operational intelligence to assist IT make enhanced choices and enrich carrier tiers in advanced, dynamic IT environments."

"It changed into difficult for our operations crew to peer the severity or identify the foundation reason for a specific carrier problem with historic monitoring equipment," said Leiv-Erik Verspoor, senior platform consultant at Sykehuspartner, the biggest IT service company for hospitals in northern Europe. "HP BSM instantly notifies our IT group of talents concerns with our infrastructure and functions if you want to instantly resolve the problem to reduce downtime and subsequently lower costs for our purchasers."

HP Operational Analytics powers IT intelligence New to HP BSM is HP Operational Analytics (OpsAnalytics), a skill that supplies actionable intelligence in regards to the fitness of IT services through automating the correlation and evaluation of consolidated data, including machine statistics, logs, activities, topology and performance counsel.

HP OpsAnalytics is the seamless integration of HP ArcSight Logger -- a everyday log management answer -- with the pleasing correlation capabilities of HP Operations manager i (OMi) and the predictive analytics of HP carrier health Analyzer (SHA).

This combination supplies deep visibility and perception into any efficiency or availability concern, so shoppers can:

  • Remediate familiar complications earlier than they happen with predictive analytics that forecast complications and prioritize concerns in keeping with enterprise impact;
  • Proactively resolve unanticipated issues via collecting, storing and examining IT operational statistics to immediately correlate service abnormalities with the difficulty source; and
  • get to the bottom of incidents quicker with abilities according to historical evaluation of prior identical movements via search capabilities across logs and events.
  • HP BSM helps customers maximize IT investments with conclusion-to-end visibility throughout heterogeneous environments by way of:

  • ensuring service availability with a 360-degree view of IT performance, by way of aggregating facts from disparate sources right into a single dashboard using out-of-the-container connectors to a number management frameworks, including IBM Tivoli business Console, IBM Tivoli Monitoring and Microsoft® equipment center;
  • Resolving and enhancing performance of functions running in OpenStack and Python cloud environments with diagnostics that pinpoint performance bottlenecks; and
  • improving availability of internet and mobile purposes through greater perception into client-side efficiency issues.
  • HP also lets virtualization directors and virtualization area count number consultants (vSME) diagnose and troubleshoot efficiency bottlenecks in virtualized environments with HP Virtualization efficiency Viewer (vPV). The free version is accessible to download today.

    Kuveyt Turk Participation financial institution boosts enterprise efficiencies  Kuveyt Turk Participation bank, a number one interest-free economic functions issuer in Turkey, more advantageous IT provider effectivity with HP BSM utility. With places in six countries and more than 220 in-country branches, the Kuveyt Turk IT operations group spends tons of its time conducting reactive utility monitoring, with a standard provider call lasting 30 minutes. 

    After reviewing distinct options, Kuveyt Turk selected HP BSM to computer screen efficiency of company functions across its eBanking, element-of-provider, ATM, credit card services and speak to middle environments. because of this, the business has reduced the number of calls to its service desk via 30 % and reduced incident resolution time with the aid of 50 %.(1)

    "missing automated conclusion-to-end monitoring of enterprise services brought about provider outages, costing us about $400,000 yearly," referred to Aslan Demir, chief counsel officer, Kuveyt Turk Participation financial institution. "We determined to enforce HP BSM application and now video display company services as a whole, resolving many complications with out ever inflicting downtime."

    obtainable as a hybrid deployment HP company service management may also be deployed in a hybrid mannequin where HP utility efficiency management on HP software as a provider is integrated with on-premises accessories of HP BSM. This deployment mannequin allows for purchasers to achieve a quicker route to cost and reduce can charge by way of minimizing integral upfront investments in deploying the HP BSM solution.

    Story continues

    HP capabilities aid purchasers plan, install, help HP software professional functions offers HP BSM improve capabilities -- a suite of capabilities designed to offer consumer choice and self assurance. The alternatives latitude from a fixed price, far flung engagement tailor-made for more convenient and smaller scale deployments, the entire solution to on-website, custom business improvements suitable for large and complex installations.

    additional information in regards to the new edition of HP BSM may be purchasable by the use of a webinar series starting on Jan. eight, 2013. more information about HP BSM, together with white papers, facts sheets and solution briefs, is accessible at www.hp.com/go/bsm.

    Pricing and availability The new edition of HP company provider administration will be available global at once from HP or through its ecosystem of worldwide channel partners. Pricing is in accordance with a licensing mannequin.

    The free versions of HP Virtualization efficiency Viewer (vPV) and HP ArcSight Logger are available to download from www.hp.com/go/vpv and www.hp.com/go/opsanalytics, respectively.

    About HP HP creates new percentages for know-how to have a meaningful affect on people, organizations, governments and society. the world's biggest expertise business, HP brings collectively a portfolio that spans printing, very own computing, application, functions and IT infrastructure to resolve client problems. extra suggestions about HP is purchasable at http://www.hp.com.

    (1) outcomes as stated by HP consumer.

    Microsoft is a U.S. registered trademark of Microsoft agency.

    This news liberate carries forward-looking statements that involve dangers, uncertainties and assumptions. If such risks or uncertainties materialize or such assumptions show improper, the effects of HP and its consolidated subsidiaries might fluctuate materially from these expressed or implied via such ahead-searching statements and assumptions. All statements aside from statements of ancient reality are statements that could be deemed ahead-searching statements, including but now not confined to statements of the plans, techniques and pursuits of management for future operations; any statements concerning anticipated development, efficiency, market share or aggressive efficiency regarding items and functions; any statements concerning expected operational and economic results; any statements of expectation or belief; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. risks, uncertainties and assumptions include macroeconomic and geopolitical tendencies and hobbies; the competitive pressures confronted by means of HP's companies; the development and transition of new items and services (and the enhancement of latest products and features) to meet client wants and reply to rising technological traits; the execution and performance of contracts through HP and its shoppers, suppliers and partners; the protection of HP's highbrow property property, including intellectual property licensed from third parties; integration and other risks linked to company mixture and investment transactions; the hiring and retention of key personnel; assumptions concerning pension and other publish-retirement charges and retirement classes; the execution, timing and results of restructuring plans, together with estimates and assumptions involving the cost and the anticipated merits of implementing those plans; expectations and assumptions regarding the execution and timing of charge discount programs and restructuring and integration plans; the decision of pending investigations, claims and disputes; and different hazards which are described in HP's Quarterly record on form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended July 31, 2012 and HP's other filings with the Securities and exchange fee, together with HP's Annual record on kind 10-ok for the fiscal 12 months ended October 31, 2011. HP assumes no obligation and does not intend to update these ahead-looking statements.

    © 2012 Hewlett-Packard building company, L.P. The information contained herein is discipline to change without note. The simplest warranties for HP products and capabilities are set forth within the categorical warranty statements accompanying such products and capabilities. Nothing herein may still be construed as constituting an further assurance. HP shall no longer be responsible for technical or editorial mistakes or omissions contained herein.


    HP hastens customer Adoption of Hybrid start models to improve software outcomes | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    WASHINGTON--(company WIRE)--HP (NYSE:HPQ) these days announced new administration options to support customers embody hybrid beginning models, spanning on-premise, off-premise, actual and digital environments, enabling faster time to market and extended agility from application investments.

    Hybrid birth models which are incorrectly managed can raise complexity, risk and charges, that can quickly reverse any positive aspects for organizations in the hunt for to undertake them.

    New HP solutions allow IT teams to without problems manage the efficiency and availability of all functions in the identical approach, irrespective of where they are running. The offerings encompass advances in the enterprise’s trade-main automation and administration systems, test statistics management and application services.

    HP enterprise service management 9.0

    HP enterprise provider administration (BSM) 9.0 improves IT operations by enabling group of workers to quite simply manipulate utility performance and availability to fulfill carrier-level agreements. HP BSM 9.0 offers:

  • The trade’s first run-time service mannequin, which updates the finished run-time environment of the software provider, whether the software is operating in an on-premise, off-premise, physical or virtual ambiance. This ensures operations body of workers can know essentially the most correct view of their IT capabilities, which dramatically reduces person influence and time to troubleshoot.
  • New collaboration capabilities utilizing web 2.0 mash-u.s.to bring actionable statistics to the correct crew with the right context throughout a number of interfaces, together with mobile contraptions. This allows faster choice making and issue resolution.
  • Automation of the entire event decision method to dramatically reduce troubleshooting costs, lessen mean time to restoration and power productiveness positive factors. HP BSM eliminates redundant pursuits and automates the system of decision the use of trade-main run-publication automation tools.
  • The HP BSM 9.0 portfolio comprises HP company Availability core 9.0 (BAC), HP Operations supervisor i 9.0 (OMi) and HP network management middle (NMC) 9.0.

    HP examine statistics management

    HP look at various data administration (TDM) automates the method of obtaining verify data from live functions. This automation stronger displays creation environments and reduces the risks linked to the eventual deployment of functions. HP TDM additionally lowers costs linked to application testing, reduces venture delays and ensures sensitive facts doesn't violate compliance rules.

    New HP software features

    HP also announced three new carrier offerings designed to help consumers drive the optimum price from their application investments.

    HP solution administration services (SMS) is a converged portfolio of application assist and consulting capabilities that helps customers simplify their environments and maximize adoption of their enterprise know-how Optimization (BTO) and advice management (IM) utility investments. New offerings consist of multiplied assist for customized and third-celebration integrations and proactive capabilities comparable to patch management and free up upgrade planning for both HP and third-birthday celebration application.

  • HP BAC anywhere has been extended to support on-premise environments besides HP software as a service (SaaS) models. organizations can display screen their exterior web purposes at any time, from any place on the earth – even outside the firewall – from one integrated console.
  • HP BSM 9.0 functions – together with an HP BSM Discovery Workshop and HP Consulting features – support purchasers design and installation their HP BSM solution to minimize chance of utility downtime and increase provider excellent.
  • “businesses are evaluating cloud and virtualization as the way to reduce charges and increase agility,” stated bill Veghte, government vice president, software and options, HP. “With HP, customers have access to market leading management tools that enable them to reap the advantages of those new models, while carrying on with to display screen and control their functions without difficulty.”

    more suggestions about HP’s new choices is accessible in a web press package at www.hp.com/go/HPSoftwareUniverseDC2010.

    About HP

    HP creates new percentages for technology to have a meaningful have an impact on on americans, corporations, governments and society. the world’s greatest technology company, HP brings collectively a portfolio that spans printing, very own computing, application, capabilities and IT infrastructure to solve client complications. greater information about HP is attainable at http://www.hp.com.

    This news free up carries ahead-searching statements that involve dangers, uncertainties and assumptions. If such dangers or uncertainties materialize or such assumptions prove mistaken, the consequences of HP and its consolidated subsidiaries may fluctuate materially from those expressed or implied by way of such ahead-searching statements and assumptions. All statements apart from statements of ancient reality are statements that can be deemed ahead-searching statements, together with however no longer confined to statements of the plans, strategies and goals of administration for future operations; any statements concerning expected building, efficiency or market share concerning products and functions; any statements regarding predicted operational and monetary consequences; any statements of expectation or perception; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. risks, uncertainties and assumptions consist of macroeconomic and geopolitical traits and events; the execution and performance of contracts with the aid of HP and its consumers, suppliers and companions; the fulfillment of anticipated operational and monetary effects; and different dangers which are described in HP’s Quarterly report on kind 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended April 30, 2010 and HP’s other filings with the Securities and alternate commission, together with but now not restricted to HP’s Annual record on form 10-ok for the fiscal 12 months ended October 31, 2009. HP assumes no responsibility and doesn't intend to update these ahead-looking statements.

    © 2010 Hewlett-Packard building business, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to exchange without notice.

    The handiest warranties for HP products and capabilities are set forth within the express warranty statements accompanying such products and functions. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an further guarantee. HP shall now not be responsible for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein.


    HP updates UCMDB for tighter integration | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    At HP utility Universe 2008 in Vienna, Austria, remaining week, HP introduced feature updates to the HP conventional Configuration management Database (UCMDB) 8.0, including more extensive integration with other HP's enterprise technology Optimization items.

    HP's UCMDB came to HP by the use of its 2006 acquisition of Mercury Interactive Corp. is integrated with HP's company carrier administration (BSM) suite of products and, like all real configuration management database (CMDB), presents federation, gives users a view of infrastructure and utility relationships via discovery and dependency mapping, and additionally tracks exchange history, ostensibly offering data core managers and admintrators a 360-degree view of IT operations.

    Bringing order to chaosWith the replace, UCMDB has built-in with more than 17 items in HP's company technology Optimization software portfolio, together with new integrations with HP enterprise Availability middle 8.0, HP Operations manager i-collection, HP network Node supervisor i-series advanced, and HP carrier supervisor 7.1.

    other new features consist of the following:

  • New Modeling Studio that makes it simpler to map applications;
  • Multi-records supply federation and attribute-degree federation; and
  • less complicated export of facts in tables and the means to email experiences.
  • UCMDB pricing starts at U.S.$60, 000.

    users often appear to HP's UCMDB for visibility into all their systems. "[HP's Universal CMDB] offers directors a unified 360-diploma view of IT operations and enterprise services, in an effort to access records core tips they need. It eliminates all the silos," pointed out Ramin Sayar, the senior director of HP's business service administration, application and know-how solutions community.

    Tulio Quinones, an commercial enterprise techniques administration unit supervisor for a company that provides IT consolidation consulting services, uses HP's UCMDB to manipulate customer information at 1,a hundred global locations.

    in advance of setting up a CMDB, the enterprise kept customer statistics in a variety of administration equipment and used homegrown tools to tug statistics as obligatory. "We had been successful with monitoring equipment and managing them for the companies we managed, however when we were requested to combine a couple of corporations onto a single gadget, things obtained very messy," Quinones talked about. "We couldn't keep music of the dependencies and who owned what … and we desired to shop all this advice centrally in its place of using many separate monitoring equipment."

    to boot, uploading the information into numerous separate tools was a plodding, time-ingesting technique. "It was an incredible volume of labor just to load data into the equipment. And by the point it become loaded, it turned into already stale," Quinones said.

    Being a legacy HP shop, Quinones appeared to HP's UCMDB as a means to consolidate their programs management equipment and arrange client information. One major advantage of HP's UCMDB is that clients can combine it with latest equipment, he spoke of. "It wasn't a rip and change. We aligned equipment and integrations with it, instead of starting over. an additional a good suggestion function, he spoke of, is UCMDB's relationship mapping capabilities, he stated. "The UCMDB allows for us to look the relationship between the host and the community and the community and the utility."

    prior to imposing UCMDB, the company struggled simply to maintain batches of statistics, however the application has enabled it to increase programs rather than easily spend all its time conserving them. "it is immediately becoming a core of our integration strategy," Quinones pointed out.

    Quinones at the moment makes use of UCMDB version 7.5 and plans to improve to the new edition of HP UCMDB (eight.0) soon. He anticipates a few elements in the new edition, corresponding to change tracking and verification (deliberate and unplanned). "at present, we leave it as much as the engineer to assess the trade with inconsistent consequences. Untracked adjustments have all the time been a problem for us," Quinones said. "With eight.0, we might be capable of compare managed/permitted state [HP Service Manager 7.1] with specific state [UCMDB 8.0].

    Open supervisor i (Omi) integration is one other huge plus, he said. "We do a lot of human correlation across the domains we manage. With OMi and UCMDB eight.0, we could be in a position to correlate hobbies throughout domains and assess the actual-time fitness of interweaved and dependant features," Quinones observed. "at the moment, we recognize when we now have a disk problem or a community bottleneck, besides the fact that children, we're offered with a problem when deciding on the affect of this event. With OMI and UCMDB, we might be able to recognize the influence automatically." Declining financial system ushers in dealsSince a declining U.S. economy has made it elaborate for agencies to justify IT spending, HP has begun to offer 0% financing for corporations in international locations the place HP has a big presence and the economic climate has brought about price range concerns, Sayar spoke of.

    HP is providing a 0% financing advertising through July 31, 2009, for licensing prices on HP BTO and IM utility for qualifying offers over $one hundred,000. The promoting is available in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the U.k. and the U.S.

    "We don't desire valued clientele to be troubled abut having to finance features from us. And for consumers who want to put money into us, we want it to be a no brainer," Sayar said.

    tell us what you believe concerning the story; electronic mail Bridget Botelho, news author.and check out our data core blogs: Server Farming, Mainframe Propellerhead, and facts middle amenities pro.


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    HP BSM Operations Manager on UNIX and Linux 9.x

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    System Center Operations Manager: Management Packs Go Deep | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    In-Depth

    System Center Operations Manager: Management Packs Go Deep

    Microsoft System Center 2012 R2 Operations Manager now lets IT pros monitor the state of their on-premises datacenters, hybrid clouds and pubic cloud environments because the latest release is designed to integrate with another component of the platform: Virtual Machine Manager. Consequently, experts say Operations Manager has become a viable management platform for monitoring everything from data protection to application tiers and even for tracking and reporting on business service levels.

    Facilitating the ability to monitor various components of the infrastructure and application stacks, the number of Operations Manager management packs is on the rise, thanks to its extensible framework. Several new management packs appeared at the recent TechEd conference in Houston. Companies adding new management packs for Operations Manager include BlueStripe Software, Hewlett-Packard Co., Savision B.V. and Veeam Software.

    Operations Manager management packs extend the functionality of the console, while System Center agents can add capabilities provided by other tools. For example, while Veeam has offered a management pack for VMware vSphere for some time, the data protection software vendor demonstrated a management pack for Operations Manager at TechEd, slated for release this quarter. Within Operations Manager, the new Veeam Management Pack version 7 for System Center offers a common dashboard. It provides monitoring, capacity planning and reporting for organizations using Veeam Backup & Replication.

    With the new management pack, Operations Manager administrators can manage both their vSphere and Hyper-V environments together. In addition to offering deeper visibility into both hypervisors within a given infrastructure, the new Veeam Management Pack provides contextual views using color-coded heat maps for viewing various metrics and it provides real-time data feeds (see Figure 1).

    [Click on image for larger view.] Figure 1. Veeam heat maps monitor host CPUs, clusters, storage memory and all virtual machines.

    The new management pack also lets administrators manage the Veeam Backup & Replication for Hyper-V platform, among other things determining if, and when, a host or virtual machine (VM) is at risk of running out of storage capacity, says Doug Hazelman, the company's vice president of product strategy. "We provide views on networking, storage, heat maps -- the smart analysis monitors, as we call them," Hazelman says. "This is something you don't see in general in System Center."

    If memory pressure is too high on a specific VM, the Veeam Management Pack can analyze the environment such as host metrics, the properties of the VM, whether it's configured with too little memory. Or, perhaps the host has exhausted its resources, so a dynamic recommendation is provided. While administrators typically default to the Windows Task Manager to determine gauge utilization of CPU, memory and other common resources on a physical server, Hazelman points out that the common utility isn't designed to do so for VMs. The Veeam Task Manager addresses that.

    "With the extensible [Operations Manager] framework, we can embed our own code and can be launched in context in System Center," Hazelman says. "It's effectively Veeam Task Manager for Hyper-V, as it shows what every VM is doing and it refreshes utilization every three seconds. Because of the way it's architected, [Operations Manager] can't do that, it would just buckle."

    While Veeam is among the leading providers of data protection suites for backing up VMs, there are a number of new backup and recovery Operations Manager management packs. The new HP Data Protector Management Pack provides centralized management of performance and availability of the new HP Data Protector 9.0. It provides real-time alerting and event management and because it comes out of the HP Autonomy division, it offers discovery and the ability to view the status of all clients and mobile devices in an environment.

    "If you're in System Center Operations Manager, you can drill down pretty fast to determine the cause of a problem or check out a server cell, or a client to see its status," says Luigi Danakos, an HP Autonomy technical marketing manager. "It allows you to use one less tool for quick information. If I have to check a backup, I don't want to log in to this tool and that tool, if I'm already in [Operations Manager], I want to be able to see my status and see if there are any issues I need to address or send down to something else."

    Vision Solutions Inc., known for its data protection wares, also has long offered a Operations Manager management pack for its Double Take Move VM migration tool, which is now certified for use with System Center 2012 R2 via its System Center Integration Toolkit. The company recently inked a new partnership with Microsoft to offer DoubleTake Move to migrate workloads to the cloud OS platform. Vision Solutions is providing integration with the Microsoft Windows PowerShell-based Migration Automation Toolkit, which Microsoft doesn't technically support, even through it developed it, says Tim Laplante, Vision Solutions director of product strategy.

    Business Service ManagementSeveral new Operations Manager management packs aim to monitor components beyond the core infrastructure level. Savision is targeting service management with the release of Unity, a version of its Live Maps tool that the Amsterdam-based company says is designed to provide end-to-end service health monitoring from Operations Manager. Savision describes Live Maps Unity as a Operations Manager tool that generates customizable dashboards that trace various dependencies between business services and their corresponding IT components. Live Maps Unity is also designed to monitor the health of business services from the perspective of employees, applications and infrastructure (see Figure 2).

    [Click on image for larger view.] Figure 2. The Savision Services Dashboard provides business service-level views.

    "The idea is we're turning Microsoft System Center Operations Manager into a business service management platform," says Savision lead developer Steven Dwyer. "[Operations Manager] is no longer just for IT professionals. Now we're letting them increase the transparency and their visibility to the business owners. This means System Center now has more visibility within the organization. People who write the checks for IT can see where the money is going."

    Dwyer says Savision decided to build this business service-level management pack for System Center as a result of increased usage of Operations Manager and a growing desire by those in the lines of business to understand what's impacting the performance of their applications. "Because [Operations Manager] is an integral part of the Microsoft cloud OS, if you want to deploy an on-premises cloud, you really have to have [Operations Manager] in there for the monitoring and management side of things," Dwyer says.

    Savision CEO Diane Krieger claims Live Maps Unity will help reduce business outages by proactively monitoring and more quickly resolving issues that can impact availability. It can reduce help desk requests by up to 30 percent, cut monitoring costs by 20 percent, which should result in less business down time, she says.

    Microsoft MVP and Savision product evangelist Alexandre Verkinderen explains in a blog post that Live Maps Unity adds business context with Microsoft Visio-like maps, and creates outage notifications within seconds while automatically providing impact analysis reports when incidents occurs. It also dynamically updates the configuration management database (CMDB) in Microsoft System Center Service Manager. Administrators can also run "what-if" scenarios before making changes.

    The software provides end user, application and infrastructure perspective along with a service model and map, addressing all business and IT stakeholders in an organization. "The new Live Maps offers out-of-the-box dashboards for C-level management, service owners, IT management, help desk, and application and infrastructure engineers," Verkinderen explains.

    Application ViewsWhile providing reports that both IT and business management can consume is arguably the end goal for CIOs these days, Operations Manager is also finding a larger foothold in monitoring application infrastructure. In the new Savision Live Maps tool, Operations Manager can get better views of application components such as databases, Web sites and app servers, and software that drives those systems.

    "[Operations Manager] provides deep monitoring of these components and will report detailed knowledge why a component might be experiencing problems," Verkinderen notes. "Live Maps enables you to build rich end-to-end views with these components and add additional business context because not all relevant knowledge can be discovered automatically. These end-to-end views make it much for non-experts to understand the ins and outs of the application. Because environments can change, Live Maps has multiple features built in to dynamically update component maps, so that maintenance is very simple and low cost."

    Also bringing the application view into Operations Manager is BlueStripe, which rolled out FactFinder at TechEd (see Figure 3). Through this Operations Manager management pack, application maps are automatically generated, providing real-time views of all applications, regardless of platform. BlueStripe, whose tools monitor everything from mainframe infrastructure and CICS and SAP R3 transactions, along with Unix, Linux and Windows infrastructure, has worked closely with the Microsoft System Center team over the past year to develop the FactFinder management pack.

    [Click on image for larger view.] Figure 3. BlueStripe FactFinder monitors the health of datacenter and Azure-based apps.

    "We track applications live, whether it's running on physical systems in a datacenter, virtual machines, private clouds or Azure, if you guys are responsible for the whole thing, we're going to help you get your arms around the big picture to monitor and help triage," explained BlueStripe co-founder and COO Vic Nyman during a presentation at TechEd. "We are tracking applications at the runtime layer. So we're seeing business apps down to the components that have processes, the connections between them, the transaction paths, so we're able to follow the app and the pieces of where it goes and tie it to the infrastructure, and that becomes a bridge between the two for all the conversations."

    Holy GrailMicrosoft principal program manager Daniel Savage, who has worked with BlueStripe and other providers of System Center management packs, says FactFinder is appealing for those who require dynamic application discovery and want the flexibility of doing so in a private datacenter and in a hybrid cloud scenario using Microsoft Azure.

    "Layer 7 app discovery is the holy grail," Savage says. "If you can really show the dependencies in an application when something goes down and how it affects the business, to me that's the key for what IT managers and CIOs want to see out of these things."

    About the Author

    Jeffrey Schwartz is editor of Redmond magazine and also covers cloud computing for Virtualization Review's Cloud Report. In addition, he writes the Channeling the Cloud column for Redmond Channel Partner. Follow him on Twitter @JeffreySchwartz.


    MOM 2005: Monitor Globally, Manage Locally | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    MOM 2005: Monitor Globally, Manage Locally

    Microsoft Operations Manager helps your customers keep a watchful eye and steady hand over their systems.

  • By Jim Thompson
  • August 01, 2006
  • High availability, redundancy and security aren't just technology buzzwords any more. They're essential ingredients. Your customers require 100 percent uptime to stay in business and stay competitive. They need consistent, stable and secure connections.

    As networks grow increasingly complex with myriad business applications, critical support servers and various security technologies, careful management can be costly and challenging. Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 (MOM 2005 -- which will soon be re-named Systems Center Operations Manager 2007 or SCOM) helps automate those management tasks.

    Microsoft made significant improvements to MOM 2005, updating the reporting features, improving performance and streamlining the administrator and operator consoles. Security has taken a front seat across the board in this version. Microsoft also tasked its major product groups with creating Management Packs and SQL report formats for MOM 2005. These Management Packs help define the management model. MOM 2005's major functional areas and improvements include:

  • Monitoring
  • Alerting and Notification
  • Management Packs
  • Customization
  • Scalability
  • Reporting
  • Improved Interface
  • Improved Performance
  • Monitoring and Management Packs MOM 2005 can manage any size Windows network. It monitors events on all agent-managed systems and reports back to the operator console, the centralized consolidated view of the entire network. It can also send alert notifications via e-mail or pager, depending on how your customers define their rules and groups.

    Processing rules are based on a set of pre-defined criteria for specific operating system events. Once such an event (such as an application failure or slipping below a certain performance threshold) occurs, it will trigger an alert to the operator console or other remote notification. The rules can be event logs, performance counters, WMI scripts or even VB or Java-based scripts or applications.

    These rules are contained within the Management Packs (MPs) -- the brains behind MOM 2005's functionality and perhaps its most powerful aspect. These XML-based rules define the logic that guides the systems' response to critical errors or events within your customer's environment. The MPs may contain as many as several thousand rules for event alerting and performance processing.

    When you consider the potential number of alerts a large enterprise will generate, you have to be careful when deploying or recommending an MP. Microsoft realizes this and has assembled tools like the Alert Tuning Accelerator to provide best-practices guidance for adjusting alert settings using the Service Monitoring and Control management function.

    MPs aren't exclusive to Microsoft technologies. There are MPs for applications like Veritas Storage Foundation and OSes like SCO Unix, Sun Solaris and even SuSe Linux. The MP's aren't exclusive to monitoring and alerting either. They can also do things like measure service level agreements.

    Before your customers deploy MPs, be sure to reference the MOM 2005 Deployment Guide. Either you or your customers can download this from the MOM 2005 homepage. Here you can also learn more about vast array of Microsoft and third-party MPs.

    Another powerful aspect of the MPs is the extent to which you or your customers can customize them to perform almost any operation. Your customers can also import and export MPs to and from production and test environments while maintaining an essential version control mechanism for tracking changes.

    There are also resource kit utilities with which your customers can track differentials between new and existing MPs. The ability to export new rules and customized settings also lets you build your own Management Packs to bundle with custom applications.

    Faster and Flexible Microsoft made tremendous improvements to MOM 2005 in terms of scalability and performance. It doubled the number of supported managed agents and drastically decreased agent deployment time. The company did this by reducing the agent's core footprint by 500 percent, from roughly 22MB to 4MB. This also reduced network latency and improved server discovery times. MOM 2005 also supports up to 60 agentless managed systems. These improvements mean deployment times are up to 2.5 times faster than previous versions.

    It helps to think about your customer's infrastructure in terms of what Microsoft calls the Management Group. This serves as both a boundary for managed systems and a unit of scalability. In its simplest form, it includes the Management Servers, both agent and agentless managed systems, an operations database, and both the Administrator and Operator consoles.

    MOM 2005 supports up to 4,000 agents per Management Group (double the capacity of the previous version) and 2,000 per Management Server. Larger environments can scale up by adding additional Management Groups. When using multiple Management Groups for scalability purposes, be mindful of performance and security issues.

    Microsoft has strict management requirements and operational guidelines for database size for several reasons, primarily to ensure you provide an acceptable level of performance. For example, the maximum supportable database size of 30GB ensures adequate room for indexing and helps the server deal with performance data bursts from monitored servers.


    GSSAPI Authentication and Kerberos v5 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    This section discusses the GSSAPI mechanism, in particular, Kerberos v5 and how this works in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software and what is involved in implementing such a solution. Please be aware that this is not a trivial task.

    It’s worth taking a brief look at the relationship between the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) and Kerberos v5.

    The GSSAPI does not actually provide security services itself. Rather, it is a framework that provides security services to callers in a generic fashion, with a range of underlying mechanisms and technologies such as Kerberos v5. The current implementation of the GSSAPI only works with the Kerberos v5 security mechanism. The best way to think about the relationship between GSSAPI and Kerberos is in the following manner: GSSAPI is a network authentication protocol abstraction that allows Kerberos credentials to be used in an authentication exchange. Kerberos v5 must be installed and running on any system on which GSSAPI-aware programs are running.

    The support for the GSSAPI is made possible in the directory server through the introduction of a new SASL library, which is based on the Cyrus CMU implementation. Through this SASL framework, DIGEST-MD5 is supported as explained previously, and GSSAPI which implements Kerberos v5. Additional GSSAPI mechanisms do exist. For example, GSSAPI with SPNEGO support would be GSS-SPNEGO. Other GSS mechanism names are based on the GSS mechanisms OID.

    The Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software only supports the use of GSSAPI on Solaris OE. There are implementations of GSSAPI for other operating systems (for example, Linux), but the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software does not use them on platforms other than the Solaris OE.

    Understanding GSSAPI

    The Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) is a standard interface, defined by RFC 2743, that provides a generic authentication and secure messaging interface, whereby these security mechanisms can be plugged in. The most commonly referred to GSSAPI mechanism is the Kerberos mechanism that is based on secret key cryptography.

    One of the main aspects of GSSAPI is that it allows developers to add secure authentication and privacy (encryption and or integrity checking) protection to data being passed over the wire by writing to a single programming interface. This is shown in FIGURE 3-2.

    03fig02.gifFigure 3-2. GSSAPI Layers

    The underlying security mechanisms are loaded at the time the programs are executed, as opposed to when they are compiled and built. In practice, the most commonly used GSSAPI mechanism is Kerberos v5. The Solaris OE provides a few different flavors of Diffie-Hellman GSSAPI mechanisms, which are only useful to NIS+ applications.

    What can be confusing is that developers might write applications that write directly to the Kerberos API, or they might write GSSAPI applications that request the Kerberos mechanism. There is a big difference, and applications that talk Kerberos directly cannot communicate with those that talk GSSAPI. The wire protocols are not compatible, even though the underlying Kerberos protocol is in use. An example is telnet with Kerberos is a secure telnet program that authenticates a telnet user and encrypts data, including passwords exchanged over the network during the telnet session. The authentication and message protection features are provided using Kerberos. The telnet application with Kerberos only uses Kerberos, which is based on secret-key technology. However, a telnet program written to the GSSAPI interface can use Kerberos as well as other security mechanisms supported by GSSAPI.

    The Solaris OE does not deliver any libraries that provide support for third-party companies to program directly to the Kerberos API. The goal is to encourage developers to use the GSSAPI. Many open-source Kerberos implementations (MIT, Heimdal) allow users to write Kerberos applications directly.

    On the wire, the GSSAPI is compatible with Microsoft’s SSPI and thus GSSAPI applications can communicate with Microsoft applications that use SSPI and Kerberos.

    The GSSAPI is preferred because it is a standardized API, whereas Kerberos is not. This means that the MIT Kerberos development team might change the programming interface anytime, and any applications that exist today might not work in the future without some code modifications. Using GSSAPI avoids this problem.

    Another benefit of GSSAPI is its pluggable feature, which is a big benefit, especially if a developer later decides that there is a better authentication method than Kerberos, because it can easily be plugged into the system and the existing GSSAPI applications should be able to use it without being recompiled or patched in any way.

    Understanding Kerberos v5

    Kerberos is a network authentication protocol designed to provide strong authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography. Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it is included in the Solaris OE to provide strong authentication for Solaris OE network applications.

    In addition to providing a secure authentication protocol, Kerberos also offers the ability to add privacy support (encrypted data streams) for remote applications such as telnet, ftp, rsh, rlogin, and other common UNIX network applications. In the Solaris OE, Kerberos can also be used to provide strong authentication and privacy support for Network File Systems (NFS), allowing secure and private file sharing across the network.

    Because of its widespread acceptance and implementation in other operating systems, including Windows 2000, HP-UX, and Linux, the Kerberos authentication protocol can interoperate in a heterogeneous environment, allowing users on machines running one OS to securely authenticate themselves on hosts of a different OS.

    The Kerberos software is available for Solaris OE versions 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 in a separate package called the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) software. For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is included as part of the Solaris Easy Access Server 3.0 (Solaris SEAS) package. For Solaris 8 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software package is available with the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack.

    For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is freely available as part of the Solaris Easy Access Server 3.0 package available for download from:

    http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/7/ds/ds-seas.

    For Solaris 8 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is available in the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack, available for download from:

    http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/content/adminPack/index.html.

    For Solaris 9 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is already installed by default and contains the following packages listed in TABLE 3-1.

    Table 3-1. Solaris 9 OE Kerberos v5 Packages

    Package Name

    Description

    SUNWkdcr

    Kerberos v5 KDC (root)

    SUNWkdcu

    Kerberos v5 Master KDC (user)

    SUNWkrbr

    Kerberos version 5 support (Root)

    SUNWkrbu

    Kerberos version 5 support (Usr)

    SUNWkrbux

    Kerberos version 5 support (Usr) (64-bit)

    All of these Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software distributions are based on the MIT KRB5 Release version 1.0. The client programs in these distributions are compatible with later MIT releases (1.1, 1.2) and with other implementations that are compliant with the standard.

    How Kerberos Works

    The following is an overview of the Kerberos v5 authentication system. From the user’s standpoint, Kerberos v5 is mostly invisible after the Kerberos session has been started. Initializing a Kerberos session often involves no more than logging in and providing a Kerberos password.

    The Kerberos system revolves around the concept of a ticket. A ticket is a set of electronic information that serves as identification for a user or a service such as the NFS service. Just as your driver’s license identifies you and indicates what driving permissions you have, so a ticket identifies you and your network access privileges. When you perform a Kerberos-based transaction (for example, if you use rlogin to log in to another machine), your system transparently sends a request for a ticket to a Key Distribution Center, or KDC. The KDC accesses a database to authenticate your identity and returns a ticket that grants you permission to access the other machine. Transparently means that you do not need to explicitly request a ticket.

    Tickets have certain attributes associated with them. For example, a ticket can be forwardable (which means that it can be used on another machine without a new authentication process), or postdated (not valid until a specified time). How tickets are used (for example, which users are allowed to obtain which types of tickets) is set by policies that are determined when Kerberos is installed or administered.

    You will frequently see the terms credential and ticket. In the Kerberos world, they are often used interchangeably. Technically, however, a credential is a ticket plus the session key for that session.

    Initial Authentication

    Kerberos authentication has two phases, an initial authentication that allows for all subsequent authentications, and the subsequent authentications themselves.

    A client (a user, or a service such as NFS) begins a Kerberos session by requesting a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) from the Key Distribution Center (KDC). This request is often done automatically at login.

    A ticket-granting ticket is needed to obtain other tickets for specific services. Think of the ticket-granting ticket as something similar to a passport. Like a passport, the ticket-granting ticket identifies you and allows you to obtain numerous “visas,” where the “visas” (tickets) are not for foreign countries, but for remote machines or network services. Like passports and visas, the ticket-granting ticket and the other various tickets have limited lifetimes. The difference is that Kerberized commands notice that you have a passport and obtain the visas for you. You don’t have to perform the transactions yourself.

    The KDC creates a ticket-granting ticket and sends it back, in encrypted form, to the client. The client decrypts the ticket-granting ticket using the client’s password.

    Now in possession of a valid ticket-granting ticket, the client can request tickets for all sorts of network operations for as long as the ticket-granting ticket lasts. This ticket usually lasts for a few hours. Each time the client performs a unique network operation, it requests a ticket for that operation from the KDC.

    Subsequent Authentications

    The client requests a ticket for a particular service from the KDC by sending the KDC its ticket-granting ticket as proof of identity.

  • The KDC sends the ticket for the specific service to the client.

    For example, suppose user lucy wants to access an NFS file system that has been shared with krb5 authentication required. Since she is already authenticated (that is, she already has a ticket-granting ticket), as she attempts to access the files, the NFS client system automatically and transparently obtains a ticket from the KDC for the NFS service.

  • The client sends the ticket to the server.

    When using the NFS service, the NFS client automatically and transparently sends the ticket for the NFS service to the NFS server.

  • The server allows the client access.

    These steps make it appear that the server doesn’t ever communicate with the KDC. The server does, though, as it registers itself with the KDC, just as the first client does.

  • Principals

    A client is identified by its principal. A principal is a unique identity to which the KDC can assign tickets. A principal can be a user, such as joe, or a service, such as NFS.

    By convention, a principal name is divided into three parts: the primary, the instance, and the realm. A typical principal could be, for example, lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM, where:

    lucy is the primary. The primary can be a user name, as shown here, or a service, such as NFS. The primary can also be the word host, which signifies that this principal is a service principal that is set up to provide various network services.

    admin is the instance. An instance is optional in the case of user principals, but it is required for service principals. For example, if the user lucy sometimes acts as a system administrator, she can use lucy/admin to distinguish herself from her usual user identity. Likewise, if Lucy has accounts on two different hosts, she can use two principal names with different instances (for example, lucy/california.example.com and lucy/boston.example.com).

    Realms

    A realm is a logical network, similar to a domain, which defines a group of systems under the same master KDC. Some realms are hierarchical (one realm being a superset of the other realm). Otherwise, the realms are non-hierarchical (or direct) and the mapping between the two realms must be defined.

    Realms and KDC Servers

    Each realm must include a server that maintains the master copy of the principal database. This server is called the master KDC server. Additionally, each realm should contain at least one slave KDC server, which contains duplicate copies of the principal database. Both the master KDC server and the slave KDC server create tickets that are used to establish authentication.

    Understanding the Kerberos KDC

    The Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) is a trusted server that issues Kerberos tickets to clients and servers to communicate securely. A Kerberos ticket is a block of data that is presented as the user’s credentials when attempting to access a Kerberized service. A ticket contains information about the user’s identity and a temporary encryption key, all encrypted in the server’s private key. In the Kerberos environment, any entity that is defined to have a Kerberos identity is referred to as a principal.

    A principal may be an entry for a particular user, host, or service (such as NFS or FTP) that is to interact with the KDC. Most commonly, the KDC server system also runs the Kerberos Administration Daemon, which handles administrative commands such as adding, deleting, and modifying principals in the Kerberos database. Typically, the KDC, the admin server, and the database are all on the same machine, but they can be separated if necessary. Some environments may require that multiple realms be configured with master KDCs and slave KDCs for each realm. The principals applied for securing each realm and KDC should be applied to all realms and KDCs in the network to ensure that there isn’t a single weak link in the chain.

    One of the first steps to take when initializing your Kerberos database is to create it using the kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin. When running this command, the user has the choice of whether to create a stash file or not. The stash file is a local copy of the master key that resides on the KDC’s local disk. The master key contained in the stash file is generated from the master password that the user enters when first creating the KDC database. The stash file is used to authenticate the KDC to itself automatically before starting the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons (for example, as part of the machine’s boot sequence).

    If a stash file is not used when the database is created, the administrator who starts up the krb5kdc process will have to manually enter the master key (password) every time they start the process. This may seem like a typical trade off between convenience and security, but if the rest of the system is sufficiently hardened and protected, very little security is lost by having the master key stored in the protected stash file. It is recommended that at least one slave KDC server be installed for each realm to ensure that a backup is available in the event that the master server becomes unavailable, and that slave KDC be configured with the same level of security as the master.

    Currently, the Sun Kerberos v5 Mechanism utility, kdb5_util, can create three types of keys, DES-CBC-CRC, DES-CBC-MD5, and DES-CBC-RAW. DES-CBC stands for DES encryption with Cipher Block Chaining and the CRC, MD5, and RAW designators refer to the checksum algorithm that is used. By default, the key created will be DES-CBC-CRC, which is the default encryption type for the KDC. The type of key created is specified on the command line with the -k option (see the kdb5_util (1M) man page). Choose the password for your stash file very carefully, because this password can be used in the future to decrypt the master key and modify the database. The password may be up to 1024 characters long and can include any combination of letters, numbers, punctuation, and spaces.

    The following is an example of creating a stash file:

    kdc1 #/usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key name 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will be prompted for the database Master Password. It is important that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: master_key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: master_key

    Notice the use of the -s argument to create the stash file. The location of the stash file is in the /var/krb5. The stash file appears with the following mode and ownership settings:

    kdc1 # cd /var/krb5 kdc1 # ls -l -rw------- 1 root other 14 Apr 10 14:28 .k5.EXAMPLE.COM

    The directory used to store the stash file and the database should not be shared or exported.

    Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File

    The KDC and Administration daemons both read configuration information from /etc/krb5/kdc.conf. This file contains KDC-specific parameters that govern overall behavior for the KDC and for specific realms. The parameters in the kdc.conf file are explained in detail in the kdc.conf(4) man page.

    The kdc.conf parameters describe locations of various files and ports to use for accessing the KDC and the administration daemon. These parameters generally do not need to be changed, and doing so does not result in any added security. However, there are some parameters that may be adjusted to enhance the overall security of the KDC. The following are some examples of adjustable parameters that enhance security.

  • kdc_ports – Defines the ports that the KDC will listen on to receive requests. The standard port for Kerberos v5 is 88. 750 is included and commonly used to support older clients that still use the default port designated for Kerberos v4. Solaris OE still listens on port 750 for backwards compatibility. This is not considered a security risk.

  • max_life – Defines the maximum lifetime of a ticket, and defaults to eight hours. In environments where it is desirable to have users re-authenticate frequently and to reduce the chance of having a principal’s credentials stolen, this value should be lowered. The recommended value is eight hours.

  • max_renewable_life – Defines the period of time from when a ticket is issued that it may be renewed (using kinit -R). The standard value here is 7 days. To disable renewable tickets, this value may be set to 0 days, 0 hrs, 0 min. The recommended value is 7d 0h 0m 0s.

  • default_principal_expiration – A Kerberos principal is any unique identity to which Kerberos can assign a ticket. In the case of users, it is the same as the UNIX system user name. The default lifetime of any principal in the realm may be defined in the kdc.conf file with this option. This should be used only if the realm will contain temporary principals, otherwise the administrator will have to constantly be renewing principals. Usually, this setting is left undefined and principals do not expire. This is not insecure as long as the administrator is vigilant about removing principals for users that no longer need access to the systems.

  • supported_enctypes – The encryption types supported by the KDC may be defined with this option. At this time, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software only supports des-cbc-crc:normal encryption type, but in the future this may be used to ensure that only strong cryptographic ciphers are used.

  • dict_file – The location of a dictionary file containing strings that are not allowed as passwords. A principal with any password policy (see below) will not be able to use words found in this dictionary file. This is not defined by default. Using a dictionary file is a good way to prevent users from creating trivial passwords to protect their accounts, and thus helps avoid one of the most common weaknesses in a computer network-guessable passwords. The KDC will only check passwords against the dictionary for principals which have a password policy association, so it is good practice to have at least one simple policy associated with all principals in the realm.

  • The Solaris OE has a default system dictionary that is used by the spell program that may also be used by the KDC as a dictionary of common passwords. The location of this file is: /usr/share/lib/dict/words. Other dictionaries may be substituted. The format is one word or phrase per line.

    The following is a Kerberos v5 /etc/krb5/kdc.conf example with suggested settings:

    # Copyright 1998-2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved. # Use is subject to license terms. # #ident "@(#)kdc.conf 1.2 02/02/14 SMI" [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] ___default_realm___ = { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s default_principal_flags = +preauth Needs moving -- dict_file = /usr/share/lib/dict/words } Access Control

    The Kerberos administration server allows for granular control of the administrative commands by use of an access control list (ACL) file (/etc/krb5/kadm5.acl). The syntax for the ACL file allows for wildcarding of principal names so it is not necessary to list every single administrator in the ACL file. This feature should be used with great care. The ACLs used by Kerberos allow privileges to be broken down into very precise functions that each administrator can perform. If a certain administrator only needs to be allowed to have read-access to the database then that person should not be granted full admin privileges. Below is a list of the privileges allowed:

  • a – Allows the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • A – Prohibits the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • d – Allows the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • D – Prohibits the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • m – Allows the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • M – Prohibits the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • c – Allows the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • C – Prohibits the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • i – Allows inquiries to the database.

  • I – Prohibits inquiries to the database.

  • l – Allows the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • L – Prohibits the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • * – Short for all privileges (admcil).

  • x – Short for all privileges (admcil). Identical to *.

  • Adding Administrators

    After the ACLs are set up, actual administrator principals should be added to the system. It is strongly recommended that administrative users have separate /admin principals to use only when administering the system. For example, user Lucy would have two principals in the database - lucy@REALM and lucy/admin@REALM. The /admin principal would only be used when administering the system, not for getting ticket-granting-tickets (TGTs) to access remote services. Using the /admin principal only for administrative purposes minimizes the chance of someone walking up to Joe’s unattended terminal and performing unauthorized administrative commands on the KDC.

    Kerberos principals may be differentiated by the instance part of their principal name. In the case of user principals, the most common instance identifier is /admin. It is standard practice in Kerberos to differentiate user principals by defining some to be /admin instances and others to have no specific instance identifier (for example, lucy/admin@REALM versus lucy@REALM). Principals with the /admin instance identifier are assumed to have administrative privileges defined in the ACL file and should only be used for administrative purposes. A principal with an /admin identifier which does not match up with any entries in the ACL file will not be granted any administrative privileges, it will be treated as a non-privileged user principal. Also, user principals with the /admin identifier are given separate passwords and separate permissions from the non-admin principal for the same user.

    The following is a sample /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file:

    # Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. # All rights reserved. # #pragma ident "@(#)kadm5.acl 1.1 01/03/19 SMI" # lucy/admin is given full administrative privilege lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM * # # tom/admin user is allowed to query the database (d), listing principals # (l), and changing user passwords (c) # tom/admin@EXAMPLE.COM dlc

    It is highly recommended that the kadm5.acl file be tightly controlled and that users be granted only the privileges they need to perform their assigned tasks.

    Creating Host Keys

    Creating host keys for systems in the realm such as slave KDCs is performed the same way that creating user principals is performed. However, the -randkey option should always be used, so no one ever knows the actual key for the hosts. Host principals are almost always stored in the keytab file, to be used by root-owned processes that wish to act as Kerberos services for the local host. It is rarely necessary for anyone to actually know the password for a host principal because the key is stored safely in the keytab and is only accessible by root-owned processes, never by actual users.

    When creating keytab files, the keys should always be extracted from the KDC on the same machine where the keytab is to reside using the ktadd command from a kadmin session. If this is not feasible, take great care in transferring the keytab file from one machine to the next. A malicious attacker who possesses the contents of the keytab file could use these keys from the file in order to gain access to another user or services credentials. Having the keys would then allow the attacker to impersonate whatever principal that the key represented and further compromise the security of that Kerberos realm. Some suggestions for transferring the keytab are to use Kerberized, encrypted ftp transfers, or to use the secure file transfer programs scp or sftp offered with the SSH package (http://www.openssh.org). Another safe method is to place the keytab on a removable disk, and hand-deliver it to the destination.

    Hand delivery does not scale well for large installations, so using the Kerberized ftp daemon is perhaps the most convenient and secure method available.

    Using NTP to Synchronize Clocks

    All servers participating in the Kerberos realm need to have their system clocks synchronized to within a configurable time limit (default 300 seconds). The safest, most secure way to systematically synchronize the clocks on a network of Kerberos servers is by using the Network Time Protocol (NTP) service. The Solaris OE comes with an NTP client and NTP server software (SUNWntpu package). See the ntpdate(1M) and xntpd(1M) man pages for more information on the individual commands. For more information on configuring NTP, refer to the following Sun BluePrints OnLine NTP articles:

    It is critical that the time be synchronized in a secure manner. A simple denial of service attack on either a client or a server would involve just skewing the time on that system to be outside of the configured clock skew value, which would then prevent anyone from acquiring TGTs from that system or accessing Kerberized services on that system. The default clock-skew value of five minutes is the maximum recommended value.

    The NTP infrastructure must also be secured, including the use of server hardening for the NTP server and application of NTP security features. Using the Solaris Security Toolkit software (formerly known as JASS) with the secure.driver script to create a minimal system and then installing just the necessary NTP software is one such method. The Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    http://www.sun.com/security/jass/

    Documentation on the Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    http://www.sun.com/security/blueprints

    Establishing Password Policies

    Kerberos allows the administrator to define password policies that can be applied to some or all of the user principals in the realm. A password policy contains definitions for the following parameters:

  • Minimum Password Length – The number of characters in the password, for which the recommended value is 8.

  • Maximum Password Classes – The number of different character classes that must be used to make up the password. Letters, numbers, and punctuation are the three classes and valid values are 1, 2, and 3. The recommended value is 2.

  • Saved Password History – The number of previous passwords that have been used by the principal that cannot be reused. The recommended value is 3.

  • Minimum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The minimum time that the password must be used before it can be changed. The recommended value is 3600 (1 hour).

  • Maximum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The maximum time that the password can be used before it must be changed. The recommended value is 7776000 (90 days).

  • These values can be set as a group and stored as a single policy. Different policies can be defined for different principals. It is recommended that the minimum password length be set to at least 8 and that at least 2 classes be required. Most people tend to choose easy-to-remember and easy-to-type passwords, so it is a good idea to at least set up policies to encourage slightly more difficult-to-guess passwords through the use of these parameters. Setting the Maximum Password Lifetime value may be helpful in some environments, to force people to change their passwords periodically. The period is up to the local administrator according to the overriding corporate security policy used at that particular site. Setting the Saved Password History value combined with the Minimum Password Lifetime value prevents people from simply switching their password several times until they get back to their original or favorite password.

    The maximum password length supported is 255 characters, unlike the UNIX password database which only supports up to 8 characters. Passwords are stored in the KDC encrypted database using the KDC default encryption method, DES-CBC-CRC. In order to prevent password guessing attacks, it is recommended that users choose long passwords or pass phrases. The 255 character limit allows one to choose a small sentence or easy to remember phrase instead of a simple one-word password.

    It is possible to use a dictionary file that can be used to prevent users from choosing common, easy-to-guess words (see “Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File” on page 70). The dictionary file is only used when a principal has a policy association, so it is highly recommended that at least one policy be in effect for all principals in the realm.

    The following is an example password policy creation:

    If you specify a kadmin command without specifying any options, kadmin displays the syntax (usage information) for that command. The following code box shows this, followed by an actual add_policy command with options.

    kadmin: add_policy usage: add_policy [options] policy options are: [-maxlife time] [-minlife time] [-minlength length] [-minclasses number] [-history number] kadmin: add_policy -minlife "1 hour" -maxlife "90 days" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 passpolicy kadmin: get_policy passpolicy Policy: passpolicy Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of old keys kept: 3 Reference count: 0

    This example creates a password policy called passpolicy which enforces a maximum password lifetime of 90 days, minimum length of 8 characters, a minimum of 2 different character classes (letters, numbers, punctuation), and a password history of 3.

    To apply this policy to an existing user, modify the following:

    kadmin: modprinc -policy passpolicy lucyPrincipal "lucy@EXAMPLE.COM" modified.

    To modify the default policy that is applied to all user principals in a realm, change the following:

    kadmin: modify_policy -maxlife "90 days" -minlife "1 hour" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 default kadmin: get_policy default Policy: default Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of old keys kept: 3 Reference count: 1

    The Reference count value indicates how many principals are configured to use the policy.

    The default policy is automatically applied to all new principals that are not given the same password as the principal name when they are created. Any account with a policy assigned to it is uses the dictionary (defined in the dict_file parameter in /etc/krb5/kdc.conf) to check for common passwords.

    Backing Up a KDC

    Backups of a KDC system should be made regularly or according to local policy. However, backups should exclude the /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab file. If the local policy requires that backups be done over a network, then these backups should be secured either through the use of encryption or possibly by using a separate network interface that is only used for backup purposes and is not exposed to the same traffic as the non-backup network traffic. Backup storage media should always be kept in a secure, fireproof location.

    Monitoring the KDC

    Once the KDC is configured and running, it should be continually and vigilantly monitored. The Sun Kerberos v5 software KDC logs information into the /var/krb5/kdc.log file, but this location can be modified in the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file, in the logging section.

    [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log

    The KDC log file should have read and write permissions for the root user only, as follows:

    -rw------ 1 root other 750 25 May 10 17:55 /var/krb5/kdc.log Kerberos Options

    The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file contains information that all Kerberos applications use to determine what server to talk to and what realm they are participating in. Configuring the krb5.conf file is covered in the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism Software Installation Guide. Also refer to the krb5.conf(4) man page for a full description of this file.

    The appdefaults section in the krb5.conf file contains parameters that control the behavior of many Kerberos client tools. Each tool may have its own section in the appdefaults section of the krb5.conf file.

    Many of the applications that use the appdefaults section, use the same options; however, they might be set in different ways for each client application.

    Kerberos Client Applications

    The following Kerberos applications can have their behavior modified through the user of options set in the appdefaults section of the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file or by using various command-line arguments. These clients and their configuration settings are described below.

    kinit

    The kinit client is used by people who want to obtain a TGT from the KDC. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following kinit options: renewable, forwardable, no_addresses, max_life, max_renewable_life and proxiable.

    telnet

    The Kerberos telnet client has many command-line arguments that control its behavior. Refer to the man page for complete information. However, there are several interesting security issues involving the Kerberized telnet client.

    The telnet client uses a session key even after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. This means that the telnet session remains active even after the ticket originally used to gain access, is no longer valid. This is insecure in a strict environment, however, the trade off between ease of use and strict security tends to lean in favor of ease-of-use in this situation. It is recommended that the telnet connection be re-initialized periodically by disconnecting and reconnecting with a new ticket. The overall lifetime of a ticket is defined by the KDC (/etc/krb5/kdc.conf), normally defined as eight hours.

    The telnet client allows the user to forward a copy of the credentials (TGT) used to authenticate to the remote system using the -f and -F command-line options. The -f option sends a non-forwardable copy of the local TGT to the remote system so that the user can access Kerberized NFS mounts or other local Kerberized services on that system only. The -F option sends a forwardable TGT to the remote system so that the TGT can be used from the remote system to gain further access to other remote Kerberos services beyond that point. The -F option is a superset of -f. If the Forwardable and or forward options are set to false in the krb5.conf file, these command-line arguments can be used to override those settings, thus giving individuals the control over whether and how their credentials are forwarded.

    The -x option should be used to turn on encryption for the data stream. This further protects the session from eavesdroppers. If the telnet server does not support encryption, the session is closed. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following telnet options: forward, forwardable, encrypt, and autologin. The autologin [true/false] parameter tells the client to try and attempt to log in without prompting the user for a user name. The local user name is passed on to the remote system in the telnet negotiations.

    rlogin and rsh

    The Kerberos rlogin and rsh clients behave much the same as their non-Kerberized equivalents. Because of this, it is recommended that if they are required to be included in the network files such as /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts that the root users directory be removed. The Kerberized versions have the added benefit of using Kerberos protocol for authentication and can also use Kerberos to protect the privacy of the session using encryption.

    Similar to telnet described previously, the rlogin and rsh clients use a session key after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. Thus, for maximum security, rlogin and rsh sessions should be re-initialized periodically. rlogin uses the -f, -F, and -x options in the same fashion as the telnet client. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following rlogin options: forward, forwardable, and encrypt.

    Command-line options override configuration file settings. For example, if the rsh section in the krb5.conf file indicates encrypt false, but the -x option is used on the command line, an encrypted session is used.

    rcp

    Kerberized rcp can be used to transfer files securely between systems using Kerberos authentication and encryption (with the -x command-line option). It does not prompt for passwords, the user must already have a valid TGT before using rcp if they wish to use the encryption feature. However, beware if the -x option is not used and no local credentials are available, the rcp session will revert to the standard, non-Kerberized (and insecure) rcp behavior. It is highly recommended that users always use the -x option when using the Kerberized rcp client.The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the encrypt [true/false] option.

    login

    The Kerberos login program (login.krb5) is forked from a successful authentication by the Kerberized telnet daemon or the Kerberized rlogin daemon. This Kerberos login daemon is separate from the standard Solaris OE login daemon and thus, the standard Solaris OE features such as BSM auditing are not yet supported when using this daemon. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the krb5_get_tickets [true/false] option. If this option is set to true, then the login program will generate a new Kerberos ticket (TGT) for the user upon proper authentication.

    ftp

    The Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) version of the ftp client uses the GSSAPI (RFC 2743) with Kerberos v5 as the default mechanism. This means that it uses Kerberos authentication and (optionally) encryption through the Kerberos v5 GSS mechanism. The only Kerberos-related command-line options are -f and -m. The -f option is the same as described above for telnet (there is no need for a -F option). -m allows the user to specify an alternative GSS mechanism if so desired, the default is to use the kerberos_v5 mechanism.

    The protection level used for the data transfer can be set using the protect command at the ftp prompt. Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software ftp supports the following protection levels:

  • Clear unprotected, unencrypted transmission

  • Safe data is integrity protected using cryptographic checksums

  • Private data is transmitted with confidentiality and integrity using encryption

  • It is recommended that users set the protection level to private for all data transfers. The ftp client program does not support or reference the krb5.conf file to find any optional parameters. All ftp client options are passed on the command line. See the man page for the Kerberized ftp client, ftp(1).

    In summary, adding Kerberos to a network can increase the overall security available to the users and administrators of that network. Remote sessions can be securely authenticated and encrypted, and shared disks can be secured and encrypted across the network. In addition, Kerberos allows the database of user and service principals to be managed securely from any machine which supports the SEAM software Kerberos protocol. SEAM is interoperable with other RFC 1510 compliant Kerberos implementations such as MIT Krb5 and some MS Windows 2000 Active Directory services. Adopting the practices recommended in this section further secure the SEAM software infrastructure to help ensure a safer network environment.

    Implementing the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Software and the GSSAPI Mechanism

    This section provides a high-level overview, followed by the in-depth procedures that describe the setup necessary to implement the GSSAPI mechanism and the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software. This implementation assumes a realm of EXAMPLE.COM for this purpose. The following list gives an initial high-level overview of the steps required, with the next section providing the detailed information.

  • Setup DNS on the client machine. This is an important step because Kerberos requires DNS.

  • Install and configure the Sun ONE Directory Server version 5.2 software.

  • Check that the directory server and client both have the SASL plug-ins installed.

  • Install and configure Kerberos v5.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kdc.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file.

  • Move the kerberos_v5 line so it is the first line in the /etc/gss/mech file.

  • Create new principals using kadmin.local, which is an interactive commandline interface to the Kerberos v5 administration system.

  • Modify the rights for /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab. This access is necessary for the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

  • Run /usr/sbin/kinit.

  • Check that you have a ticket with /usr/bin/klist.

  • Perform an ldapsearch, using the ldapsearch command-line tool from the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software to test and verify.

  • The sections that follow fill in the details.

    Configuring a DNS Client

    To be a DNS client, a machine must run the resolver. The resolver is neither a daemon nor a single program. It is a set of dynamic library routines used by applications that need to know machine names. The resolver’s function is to resolve users’ queries. To do that, it queries a name server, which then returns either the requested information or a referral to another server. Once the resolver is configured, a machine can request DNS service from a name server.

    The following example shows you how to configure the resolv.conf(4) file in the server kdc1 in the example.com domain.

    ; ; /etc/resolv.conf file for dnsmaster ; domain example.com nameserver 192.168.0.0 nameserver 192.168.0.1

    The first line of the /etc/resolv.conf file lists the domain name in the form:

    domain domainname

    No spaces or tabs are permitted at the end of the domain name. Make sure that you press return immediately after the last character of the domain name.

    The second line identifies the server itself in the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    Succeeding lines list the IP addresses of one or two slave or cache-only name servers that the resolver should consult to resolve queries. Name server entries have the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    IP_address is the IP address of a slave or cache-only DNS name server. The resolver queries these name servers in the order they are listed until it obtains the information it needs.

    For more detailed information of what the resolv.conf file does, refer to the resolv.conf(4) man page.

    To Configure Kerberos v5 (Master KDC)

    In the this procedure, the following configuration parameters are used:

  • Realm name = EXAMPLE.COM

  • DNS domain name = example.com

  • Master KDC = kdc1.example.com

  • admin principal = lucy/admin

  • Online help URL = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956

  • This procedure requires that DNS is running.

    Before you begin this configuration process, make a backup of the /etc/krb5 files.

  • Become superuser on the master KDC. (kdc1, in this example)

  • Edit the Kerberos configuration file (krb5.conf).

    You need to change the realm names and the names of the servers. See the krb5.conf(4) man page for a full description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/krb5.conf [libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kdc = kdc1.example.com admin server = kdc1.example.com } [domain_realm] .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log [appdefaults] gkadmin = { help_url = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956 }

    In this example, the lines for domain_realm, kdc, admin_server, and all domain_realm entries were changed. In addition, the line with ___slave_kdcs___ in the [realms] section was deleted and the line that defines the help_url was edited.

  • Edit the KDC configuration file (kdc.conf).

    You must change the realm name. See the kdc.conf( 4) man page for a full description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/kdc.conf [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] EXAMPLE.COM= { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s Need moving ---------> default_principal_flags = +preauth }

    In this example, only the realm name definition in the [realms] section is changed.

  • Create the KDC database by using the kdb5_util command.

    The kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin, creates the KDC database. When used with the -s option, this command creates a stash file that is used to authenticate the KDC to itself before the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons are started.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key name 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will be prompted for the database Master Password. It is important that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: key

    The -r option followed by the realm name is not required if the realm name is equivalent to the domain name in the server’s name space.

  • Edit the Kerberos access control list file (kadm5.acl).

    Once populated, the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file contains all principal names that are allowed to administer the KDC. The first entry that is added might look similar to the following:

    lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM *

    This entry gives the lucy/admin principal in the EXAMPLE.COM realm the ability to modify principals or policies in the KDC. The default installation includes an asterisk (*) to match all admin principals. This default could be a security risk, so it is more secure to include a list of all of the admin principals. See the kadm5.acl(4) man page for more information.

  • Edit the /etc/gss/mech file.

    The /etc/gss/mech file contains the GSSAPI based security mechanism names, its object identifier (OID), and a shared library that implements the services for that mechanism under the GSSAPI. Change the following from:

    # Mechanism Name Object Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # diffie_hellman_640_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1 kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5

    To the following:

    # Mechanism Name Object Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5 diffie_hellman_640_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1
  • Run the kadmin.local command to create principals.

    You can add as many admin principals as you need. But you must add at least one admin principal to complete the KDC configuration process. In the following example, lucy/admin is added as the principal.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin.local kadmin.local: addprinc lucy/admin Enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Re-enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin.local:
  • Create a keytab file for the kadmind service.

    The following command sequence creates a special keytab file with principal entries for lucy and tom. These principals are needed for the kadmind service. In addition, you can optionally add NFS service principals, host principals, LDAP principals, and so on.

    When the principal instance is a host name, the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) must be entered in lowercase letters, regardless of the case of the domain name in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

    kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab kadmin/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal kadmin/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab changepw/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal changepw/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local:

    Once you have added all of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin.local as follows:

    kadmin.local: quit
  • Start the Kerberos daemons as shown:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc start kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master start

    Note

    You stop the Kerberos daemons by running the following commands:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc stop kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master stop
  • Add principals by using the SEAM Administration Tool.

    To do this, you must log on with one of the admin principal names that you created earlier in this procedure. However, the following command-line example is shown for simplicity.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin -p lucy/admin Enter password: kws_admin_password kadmin:
  • Create the master KDC host principal which is used by Kerberized applications such as klist and kprop.

    kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/kdc1.example.com Principal "host/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • (Optional) Create the master KDC root principal which is used for authenticated NFS mounting.

    kadmin: addprinc root/kdc1.example.com Enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Re-enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Principal "root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • Add the master KDC’s host principal to the master KDC’s keytab file which allows this principal to be used automatically.

    kadmin: ktadd host/kdc1.example.com kadmin: Entry for principal host/kdc1.example.com with ->kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab ->WRFILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab kadmin:

    Once you have added all of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin as follows:

    kadmin: quit
  • Run the kinit command to obtain and cache an initial ticket-granting ticket (credential) for the principal.

    This ticket is used for authentication by the Kerberos v5 system. kinit only needs to be run by the client at this time. If the Sun ONE directory server were a Kerberos client also, this step would need to be done for the server. However, you may want to use this to verify that Kerberos is up and running.

    kdclient # /usr/bin/kinit root/kdclient.example.com Password for root/kdclient.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: passwd
  • Check and verify that you have a ticket with the klist command.

    The klist command reports if there is a keytab file and displays the principals. If the results show that there is no keytab file or that there is no NFS service principal, you need to verify the completion of all of the previous steps.

    # klist -k Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab KVNO Principal ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 nfs/host.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

    The example given here assumes a single domain. The KDC may reside on the same machine as the Sun ONE directory server for testing purposes, but there are security considerations to take into account on where the KDCs reside.

  • With regards to the configuration of Kerberos v5 in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software, you are finished with the Kerberos v5 part. It’s now time to look at what is required to be configured on the Sun ONE directory server side.

    Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 GSSAPI Configuration

    As previously discussed, the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI), is standard interface that enables you to use a security mechanism such as Kerberos v5 to authenticate clients. The server uses the GSSAPI to actually validate the identity of a particular user. Once this user is validated, it’s up to the SASL mechanism to apply the GSSAPI mapping rules to obtain a DN that is the bind DN for all operations during the connection.

    The first item discussed is the new identity mapping functionality.

    The identity mapping service is required to map the credentials of another protocol, such as SASL DIGEST-MD5 and GSSAPI to a DN in the directory server. As you will see in the following example, the identity mapping feature uses the entries in the cn=identity mapping, cn=config configuration branch, whereby each protocol is defined and whereby each protocol must perform the identity mapping. For more information on the identity mapping feature, refer to the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Documents.

    To Perform the GSSAPI Configuration for the Sun ONE Directory Server Software
  • Check and verify, by retrieving the rootDSE entry, that the GSSAPI is returned as one of the supported SASL Mechanisms.

    Example of using ldapsearch to retrieve the rootDSE and get the supported SASL mechanisms:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -b "" -s base "(objectclass=*)" supportedSASLMechanisms supportedSASLMechanisms=EXTERNAL supportedSASLMechanisms=GSSAPI supportedSASLMechanisms=DIGEST-MD5
  • Verify that the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    By default, the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    Example of using ldapsearch to verify that the GSSAPI SASL mechanism is enabled:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D"cn=Directory Manager" -w password -b "cn=SASL, cn=security,cn= config" "(objectclass=*)" # # Should return # cn=SASL, cn=security, cn=config objectClass=top objectClass=nsContainer objectClass=dsSaslConfig cn=SASL dsSaslPluginsPath=/var/Sun/mps/lib/sasl dsSaslPluginsEnable=DIGEST-MD5 dsSaslPluginsEnable=GSSAPI
  • Create and add the GSSAPI identity-mapping.ldif.

    Add the LDIF shown below to the Sun ONE Directory Server so that it contains the correct suffix for your directory server.

    You need to do this because by default, no GSSAPI mappings are defined in the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

    Example of a GSSAPI identity mapping LDIF file:

    # dn: cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: GSSAPI dn: cn=default,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: default dsMappedDN: uid=${Principal},ou=people,dc=example,dc=com dn: cn=same_realm,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: dsPatternMatching objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: same_realm dsMatching-pattern: ${Principal} dsMatching-regexp: (.*)@example.com dsMappedDN: uid=$1,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com

    It is important to make use of the ${Principal} variable, because it is the only input you have from SASL in the case of GSSAPI. Either you need to build a dn using the ${Principal} variable or you need to perform pattern matching to see if you can apply a particular mapping. A principal corresponds to the identity of a user in Kerberos.

    You can find an example GSSAPI LDIF mappings files in ServerRoot/slapdserver/ldif/identityMapping_Examples.ldif.

    The following is an example using ldapmodify to do this:

    $./ldapmodify -a -c -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password -f identity-mapping.ldif -e /var/tmp/ldif.rejects 2> /var/tmp/ldapmodify.log
  • Perform a test using ldapsearch.

    To perform this test, type the following ldapsearch command as shown below, and answer the prompt with the kinit value you previously defined.

    Example of using ldapsearch to test the GSSAPI mechanism:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -o mech=GSSAPI -o authzid="root/hostname.domainname@EXAMPLE.COM" -b "" -s base "(objectclass=*)"

    The output that is returned should be the same as without the -o option.

    If you do not use the -h hostname option, the GSS code ends up looking for a localhost.domainname Kerberos ticket, and an error occurs.



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