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C2070-448 exam Dumps Source : IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2
Test Code : C2070-448
Test Name : IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 142 Real Questions
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IBM IBM Content Collector (ICC)
IBM to purchase red Hat, a leading Java neighborhood Contributor
by means of John okay. Waters
IBM introduced on Sunday plans to purchase leading enterprise open source application company and longtime Java group manner (JCP) leader crimson Hat in a $34 billion stock deal.
Described via massive Blue as IBM's most colossal acquisition and probably the most large tech acquisition of 2018, the deal represents "a landmark second for each agencies and is an incredible step ahead in IBM's ongoing focal point on excessive-cost business, the transformation of our portfolio, and our management within the rising era of AI and cloud."
IBM and purple Hat pointed out the deal, which has been accredited by means of their respective boards, is subject to pink Hat shareholder and regulatory approval, and should be accomplished within the latter half of 2019.
speakme this morning with press and analysts on a convention name, Paul Cormier, crimson Hat's EVP and president of products and technologies, spoke of the merger will support his business realize its imaginative and prescient for its Linux and open source choices.
"over the past 10 years or so, Linux has been the platform the place most of the innovation within the commercial enterprise has been occurring," Cormier observed. "We built a purposeful portfolio round Linux and open supply tailor-made for the hybrid cloud ... but we're nonetheless a relatively small business. Our customers are seeing open hybrid cloud as the simplest method to deliver public cloud into their IT infrastructure, and because of our size we cannot identified the skills of that demand. IBM helps us deliver that approach to a hundred and seventy international locations and quickens our vision into the market."
IBM has long been a number one person and contributor to Linux, which undergirds red Hat's desirable items, including the crimson Hat business Linux (RHEL) OS.
On that identical conference name, Arvind Krishna, IBM's SVP of Hybrid Cloud, spoke of this acquisition will make his enterprise the area's main hybrid cloud issuer. IBM's aim, he spoke of, "is to win in hybrid cloud, and win on the foundation of open applied sciences, and in the end to supply a technology that makes existence more straightforward [for companies] with much less complexity and a future proof funding."
To a question in regards to the talents influence of the acquisition on red Hat-maintained open source projects, similar to Fedora, Gnome, and CentOS, Cormier replied succinctly "None. No have an effect on," he talked about. "The day after we shut [the acquisition], I do not intend to do anything different. For us, it'll be company as regular. anything we were going to do for our roadmaps as a stand-alone will continue. We should do what's appropriate for the neighborhood upstream, our associates and our business."
both executives claimed that the leading roles the two corporations play in the JCP should not suffering from the merger. IBM and pink Hat are energetic contributors of the Java group, but Raleigh, N.C.-based pink Hat is likely one of the most lively contributors, and has been for many years.
"each IBM and crimson Hat have been potent voices in that group," Cormier referred to, "and i consider that will continue. crimson Hat will continue to do what's right for the crimson Hat portfolio, and that i would guess that IBM would do the identical."
purple Hat is, basically, the largest contributor to the OpenJDK subsequent to Oracle. purple Hat executives have served on the JCP government Committee and as Java spec leads or expert Working neighborhood members for greater than 35 Java Specification Requests (JSRs). the first Context and Dependency Injection spec (JSR 299), which changed into led with the aid of JBoss Fellow Gavin King, had a big effect on Java EE 6. The business became also behind enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) 3, JavaServer Faces, and the Java Persistence API. It collaborated on four JSRs for Java EE 7: Java API for RESTful web functions 2.0 (JSR-339); Java Message service 2.0 (JSR-343); Java Server Faces 2.2 (JSR-344); and Java content material Repository API (JSR-333).
crimson Hat additionally spearheaded two OpenJDK tasks: Shenandoah (JEP 189), which aims to supply an ultra-low-pause-time garbage Collector; and Thermostat , an instrumentation tool for the Hotspot JVM.
Martijn Verburg, CEO of jClarity, co-organizer of the London JUG, and a member of the Java group manner (JCP) govt Committee, expects "a positive influence" from the acquisition.
"IBM has basically proven purple Hat-like features when it comes to Java and Open source," Verburg referred to in an e-mail. "They've these days OpenSourced their J9 VM (Eclipse OpenJ9) as well as their WebSphere software Server (Open Liberty). They are also right tier helps of Microprofile, Jakarta EE and crucially adopt OpenJDK.
Reza Rahman, SVP at AxonIQ, former Oracle Java developer evangelist, and co-founding father of the Java EE Guardians, is "of two minds" on the acquisition.
"I completely be mindful the company purpose behind this for each IBM and purple Hat," he told ADTmag. "here is unequivocally decent for the shareholders and employees of both corporations. however, the fact is that the effect for purchasers and the Java EE ecosystem may also now not always be so rosy. it will likely mean much less alternatives for Java EE clients and fewer market competitiveness. as an example, it would not surprise me if Websphere Liberty, Open Liberty, JBoss EAP, WildFly, and Thorntail now should merge. i'm hoping smaller and more moderen market entrants will fill in any aggressive gaps, as they should in a healthy financial house."
"I also wish each the Java EE individuals at IBM and pink Hat all the ultimate as long term colleagues," he delivered. "expectantly they can be capable to make this a great outcome for Java EE."
one more Java EE Guardian, Kito Mann, who is a predominant advisor at Virtua Inc., sees a definite synergy amongst Linux, Java, and cloud features, however he concerns about big Blue.
"IBM's song listing with acquisitions is questionable," he talked about in an electronic mail. "purple Hat has executed an enormous job championing open supply and constructing awesome items. youngsters IBM has numerous involvement with open source, it's simply no longer on the identical level. My subject is that crimson Hat will get absorbed into one or more large IBM product traces after which fade into mediocrity or irrelevance (be aware Rational?)"
about the Java connection, Mann has some questions: "when it comes to Java, does this mean purple Hat products will beginning delivery with the IBM Java VM?" he asked. "What about JBoss and WebSphere (Liberty)? What about all of the outstanding OSS products from red Hat/JBoss, and the company's work culture?"
JNBridge CTO and co-founder Wayne Citrin, also has just a few considerations about the merger. "My feeling is that there's getting to be too an awful lot attention within the trade," he said in an email, "and this would not aid. crimson Hat gave the impression to be doing just fine and didn't should merge, but I cannot blame them for cashing in."
John has been overlaying the excessive-tech beat from Silicon Valley and the San Francisco Bay enviornment for almost two decades. He serves as Editor-at-gigantic for software development developments (www.ADTMag.com) and contributes regularly to Redmond journal, The expertise Horizons in education Journal, and Campus expertise. he's the author of more than a dozen books, together with The every thing book to Social Media; The every little thing laptop publication; Blobitecture: Waveform architecture and Digital Design; John Chambers and the Cisco way; and Diablo: The legit approach e book.
The goal of many commercial enterprise customers is to be capable of modernize key purposes and run them anyplace they want: On a non-public cloud of their own information middle (where their sensitive information lives), on a public cloud (where they get scale, world-large attain), and even better, on each private and public…where it becomes a true hybrid utility taking competencies of the better of both environments.
In late March, IBM shared how customers could run their modernized applications in a hybrid environment throughout IBM Cloud private and IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier in IBM Cloud. This standard means, captured in the following video, showcases how a shopper can transform their utility, the place each construction groups and cloud ops groups can both be delighted.
Watch: A consistent Cloud experience with IBM Cloud private and IBM Cloud
nowadays, i'm thrilled to share enhancements that make it even more convenient to create clusters, manage catalog content, and set up developed apps across hybrid cloud environments. exceptionally, with this latest enhancement of IBM Cloud deepest 22.214.171.124, fix Pack 1, users can lengthen a brand new or present IBM Cloud deepest deployment with here capabilities:
Create extra Kubernetes clusters using a template from IBM Cloud private
Curate which functions builders have access to, and let them provision on either deepest or public clusters with self-provider potential
installation a customized app into both private and public environments from the equal developer atmosphere
Create further private and public Kubernetes clusters out of your IBM Cloud inner most Catalog
the primary enhancement is the ability for any licensed user to provision a new IBM Cloud deepest cluster or IBM Cloud Kubernetes service cluster.
here’s what you're going to want:
IBM Cloud deepest
IBM Cloud Automation supervisor
IBM Cloud account (with correct authorization)
follow IBM Cloud deepest patch
as an example, when you deploy IBM Cloud Automation manager onto your IBM Cloud inner most cluster, that you can create a brokered provider (with personalized variables limiting and controlling what options are available) a good way to let any authorized person create the IBM Cloud Kubernetes service cluster onto your IBM Cloud account. An non-compulsory VPN may also be immediately deployed to securely connect the two clusters, if favored.
determine 1: diverse clusters made out of one IBM Cloud private cluster
listed below are the steps you're going to comply with. For every step, I’ve delivered a hyperlink to the expertise core (product documentation) that offers step-with the aid of-step guidelines.
First, set up and open IBM Cloud Automation supervisor.
figure 2: IBM Cloud inner most catalog entry for Cloud Automation supervisor
second, add a “Cloud Connection” to IBM Cloud that makes use of your credentials.
figure 3: opt for “manage Connections” to create a brand new connection to IBM Cloud the use of your account to create the Kubernetes cluster.
This connection will use your IBM Cloud account’s API key to communicate between Cloud Automation supervisor and IBM Cloud. Be conscious that when you set this up, Cloud Automation supervisor will use your account to create IBM Cloud resources. be certain that your IBM Cloud account has the fundamental person permissions and might guide the billing in your estimated product usage.
Third, create a custom carrier using an IBM-offered template to installation an IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier cluster (with optional VPN connection) and publish it into the IBM Cloud deepest catalog.
determine four: choose “features” to create a new provider in Cloud Automation manager
this is in fact where you'll harness the vigour of Cloud Automation manager and its IBM-provided templates. feel of it this way: the place during the past you could must manually run instructions or navigate a user interface to outline the IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier, after which customize many details anytime you provision a cluster, Cloud Automation supervisor has provided all the particulars in a template. by means of creating this carrier, you provide an easy solution to have your group provision a cluster once they need it, the use of the account (and bounds) that you simply specify.
moreover the outdated hyperlink, listed below are some information to growing the “Provision IKS Cluster” service (figure 5):
determine 5: Customizing parameters to your “Provision IKS Cluster” provider
Make cluster_name a carrier parameter so your person can specify it once they set up.
Specify private_vlan_id and public_vlan_id for the IBM Cloud area you wish to installation into. To discover the values, run here command in your IBM Cloud CLI (enter any region. during this illustration, ‘dal10’ is the vicinity I want to install into): bx cs vlans dal10
Make num_workers (the number of worker nodes for the cluster) a service parameter so your users can make a decision how many employee nodes their cluster needs. note that this should still be an array of the variety of people you authorize your users to select from. maybe start with offering 2–5 worker nodes.
Default machine_type so clients can handiest opt for machines of the variety you default. To choose your default, effortlessly click the price column and all supported machine forms will seem.
be aware for you to optionally add a VPN template into your “Provision IKS Cluster” provider so for you to privately talk between your IBM Cloud private cluster and your IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier cluster. if you decide to add the non-compulsory VPN connection, there are some IBM Cloud inner most guidelines for setting up StrongSwan VPN, and IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier guidance and concerns to look at.
once you publish the provider into the IBM Cloud private catalog, you are going to allow different clients a simplified option to create their own clusters.
determine 6: IBM Cloud private catalog with the service to provision IKS cluster that you just created
Fourth, installation the “Provision IKS Cluster” service from the catalog. You’ll observe in figure 7 that there are only a couple of parameters for the particular person to fill out (the service you defined past crammed in lots of the defaults).
figure 7: Deploying an IKS cluster from IBM Cloud deepest
Now that your carrier is created, your building groups can installation as many IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier clusters into the general public cloud as they need.
Curate, to your enterprise requirements, production capabilities sourced from IBM Cloud private and IBM Cloud Kubernetes service right into a single catalog.
The second enhancement is the skill to set up production middleware into either IBM Cloud private or IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier, all from your IBM Cloud private catalog. This enhancement, coupled with the brand new IBM Cloud inner most skill to restrict what clients have entry to in the catalog, allows for a cloud admin to provide a developer a curated view of what they could deploy. extra, with IBM Cloud Automation supervisor’s brokered service assist, the cloud admin can create a service with distinctive plans, so when a developer selects a plan in their catalog, IBM Cloud Automation manager will set up the relevant version of middleware that maps to the selected plan.
as an example, you may want to let a person “Create a database,” but with out burdening them with the entire specifics that a database Helm chart requires. further, you have certain models in intellect, reckoning on where they installation and who the user is. for instance, you can also want to have simplest “dev” types or “creation” models of the middleware on certain clusters, or even an open source Postgres database in IBM Cloud Kubernetes provider. With this new enhancement, that you would be able to create a brokered provider via IBM Cloud Automation supervisor to latest a simplified view for the user to choose their preferred plan, hiding all of the gritty particulars which will reply a number of questions, installation what they want, and you can manipulate the database situations far less demanding.
listed below are the steps you are going to comply with. For each step, I’ve introduced a hyperlink to the skills core that provides step-by way of-step guidance.
First, for Db2, IBM MQ, and Liberty, download your construction middleware content material from Passport competencies. if you wish to use construction types for Db2, IBN MQ, and Liberty, these are already accessible in IBM Charts.
second, import the creation Helm chart and container image into each cloud. each platform has a “Passport abilities Importer” tool to simplify this step. click on right here to import into IBM Cloud inner most, and click here to import into IBM Cloud Kubernetes provider. note that when you import production versions of IBM MQ, Db2, and WebSphere Liberty, you're licensed to make use of them.
To import creation middleware into IBM Cloud Kubernetes provider, that you can either shop the Helm charts for your local file gadget, otherwise you can upload them into a non-public Helm repository. in case you need to upload the charts into a private Helm repository, you're going to deserve to first set up one into your cluster. IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier does not at the moment have a private Helm repository, so i recommend you set up ChartMuseum, so that it will give you the obligatory inner most Helm repository in your IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier cluster.
Third, open IBM Cloud Automation manager in IBM Cloud private to create the brokered database carrier, or anything brokered provider you desire. As you did earlier than, click on “Create carrier,” and this time, open “IBM Cloud private,” so one can exhibit all the Helm charts you can add to this carrier.
figure eight: Create a “statistics provider” in Cloud Automation supervisor
One thought that you simply need to recognize: seeing that the intention is to have one carrier deploy charts into either IBM Cloud deepest or IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier, the record of Helm charts listed in IBM Cloud Automation supervisor has to be the union of Helm charts accessible in each objectives. For you, this potential that your IBM Cloud inner most cluster should add the Helm repo URL of the IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier cluster so that the charts exhibit up during this record.
Fourth, now that you have your customized carrier created, you can curate (filter, limit) what functions reveal up for your developer, Jane. As which you can see from the Cloud Automation manager capabilities above, that you may floor most any provider from any cloud to your developers, customise and limit what parameters they could edit, and now with IBM Cloud deepest 2.1.0.three, that you could filter the catalog so Jane can best see what you desire her to.
as an instance, while past in determine 6 the admin has 54 objects within the catalog, figure 9 indicates that Jane can see most effective seven!
determine 9: Filtered catalog view for “Jane” the developer. be aware “Database-provider” and “Provision-IKS-Cluster”.
To filter the catalog, add a crew like “application developers” in the manipulate > teams view (figure 10).
determine 10: displaying groups in IBM Cloud deepest
as soon as created, click the crew name, and the “components” tab. this may demonstrate all supplies the team is approved to. What I in reality like is that teams may also be authorized to numerous materials throughout IBM Cloud inner most:
Kubernetes namespace (for increased isolation and entry control)
Helm repo (so devs can access most effective the assortment of Helm charts you want)
individual Helm charts
individual brokered functions
In figure eleven, that you can see what utility developers are licensed to. notice that the database service we created in the past has two plans, and the builders are authorized to each. besides the fact that children, you may authorize them to only one plan. This capability that you simply could create one provider and authorize parts to different groups…some distance more straightforward to manage.
determine eleven: The substances obtainable to utility builders
radically change, increase, and set up your software onto each IBM Cloud private and IBM Cloud Kubernetes provider
The third enhancement revolves around assisting developers migrate WebSphere apps and then deploying them into IBM Cloud deepest using a pipeline to dissimilar Kubernetes clusters.
right here’s what you are going to need:
IBM Cloud inner most
IBM Transformation consultant
as an instance, to migrate a WebSphere utility, start by working Transformation guide from your IBM Cloud private example. Transformation consultant provides a data collector to add next to your WebSphere app, and it'll provide concepts on the way to migrate it right into a containerized WebSphere Liberty runtime on IBM Cloud private.
In determine 12, Transformation consultant shows the outcomes of its evaluation. As that you could see, each and every file is proven, the considerations (how complex it would be to migrate), and a migration plan.
figure 12: The elements purchasable to application developers
within the migration plan for every file (figure 13), Transformation advisor suggests all of the deployment data it would create and provides a link to install the bundle.
determine 13: The detailed migration plan for a particular bundle
To definitely install the bundle, Transformation advisor integrates with Microclimate. Microclimate is the end-to-conclusion construction atmosphere that runs right inner IBM Cloud inner most.
determine 14 shows Microclimate and the initiatives that have been created:
determine 14: Microclimate and its tasks
when you choose a assignment that you simply imported, you may update the Git repo with source code and shortly you can update code, view logs, and even view app-level metrics like in figure 15:
determine 15: Coding and unit trying out apps all within Microclimate
really, in case you wish to use one of the vital sample Microclimate apps , which you can are trying it your self.
at last, to installation the app to additional clusters (like a far off IBM Cloud deepest or IBM Cloud Kubernetes provider), which you can deploy deployment pipelines extra clusters using these instructions.
As which you could see, if you deserve to run your app in a hybrid atmosphere that makes it less difficult for builders to provision capabilities they want (anywhere they may additionally live), and if your developers need sooner skill to installation throughout assorted Kubernetes clusters, these enhancements can be fairly welcome considering the fact that now, with IBM Cloud inner most 2.1.0.three, fix Pack 1, users can:
Create further Kubernetes clusters using a template from IBM Cloud inner most
Curate which services builders have access to, and allow them to provision on both private or public clusters with self-service capability
installation a customized app into both private and public environments from the identical developer ambiance
i'm hoping you give this a are attempting, and if you want any help, contact IBM Cloud deepest help right here: http://ibm.biz/icpsupport
Cloud Automation manager
Passport potential — construction Middleware
IBM Cloud deepest
IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier
protection suggestions and event management software products and services are becoming general add-ons of the...
cybersecurity programs of many agencies.
protection suggestions and event management (SIEM) software combines security assistance management and security adventure administration, offering true-time evaluation of protection signals generated with the aid of applications and network hardware.
right here's a glance at one of the most efficient SIEM software products presently available on the market.
AlienVault Inc. USM any place
AlienVault Unified safety administration (USM) anyplace is a cloud-based, SaaS platform.
The product's core SIEM software services encompass log assortment, adventure management, event correlation and reporting. USM any place allows the centralized storage of all log facts within the AlienVault comfortable Cloud, a licensed-compliant environment. This alleviates the company's burden of having to manage and relaxed logs on premises, whereas also presenting a compliance-in a position log management environment.
Going past a normal SIEM product, USM anyplace combines distinctive unified protection capabilities that allow chance detection and incident response: asset discovery, vulnerability evaluation, intrusion detection -- network, host and cloud -- endpoint detection and response, file integrity monitoring, safety orchestration and automation, and normally updated danger intelligence from the AlienVault Labs security research group, which is backed by means of the Open probability exchange.
USM any place provides assorted security capabilities in a single SaaS providing. both computerized and orchestrated, these capabilities give safety experts the equipment and assistance they deserve to manage risk detection, incident response and compliance, the business claims.
The company also makes use of an alarm dashboard, named the Kill Chain Taxonomy, to focus attention on probably the most severe threats. safety analytics enable safety authorities to drill down into alarms to see the linked belongings, vulnerabilities and hobbies.
USM any place additionally offers a library of predefined report templates for a few requirements and regulations. These studies can support speed up safety and compliance reporting requirements and assist with audit readiness. It also includes more than 50 predefined adventure stories via facts supply and information supply class, assisting to make every day monitoring and reporting actions greater effective.
As a subscription-primarily based cloud provider, USM anyplace is available in three editions -- necessities, typical and business -- for organizations of all sizes and budgets. Pricing for USM anyplace essentials edition starts at $1,695 per thirty days.
version 7.3.1 of IBM QRadar integrates with greater than 450 log sources and presents a popular machine assist Module to aid businesses ingest statistics throughout on-premises and cloud-primarily based substances.
The product parses and normalizes log statistics from endpoints, property, users, functions and cloud components. QRadar then correlates this facts to network flows, vulnerability scanner consequences and hazard intelligence to establish each standard threats and anomalous network and device recreation. These might be the indicators of an unknown threat.
linked undertaking automatically hyperlinks and aggregates into an offense, and IBM QRadar then prioritizes these offenses based on the severity of the issue and the sensitivity of the assets concerned. QRadar's approach to offenses helps distill big volumes of data right into a handful of exact, actionable indicators. The platform contains a whole bunch of prebuilt guidelines, and agencies can add stories, dashboards, integrations and additional prebuilt suggestions from the IBM protection App exchange.
IBM QRadar main dashboard continues music of skills threats, each international and native
corporations can also installation QRadar on premises as hardware or application, in public and personal clouds, or by the use of any of IBM's managed protection services company companions. flexible structure can delivery small with an all-in-one system with a console, event collector and adventure processor, and may then scale out into particularly dispensed environments with separate collectors, processors and consoles.
QRadar SIEM application is vital to the IBM security Intelligence Platform. The platform extends beyond commonplace SIEM capabilities to consist of:
QRadar network Insights, which gives precise-time packet inspection to identify malware, monitor the switch of sensitive data and establish facts exfiltration; and
QRadar user habits Analytics, which uses a mix of rules, anomaly detection and computing device learning algorithms to establish malicious insiders and compromised credentials.
other capabilities include QRadar marketing consultant with Watson, which applies synthetic intelligence to automatically mine native QRadar information to find the root trigger and real scope of a probability inside the atmosphere.
It additionally includes the QRadar data shop, which presents mounted-price log storage, enabling agencies to save huge amounts of data without having to correlate everything. This helps businesses address regulatory necessities and hold data that can be critical to future investigations and chance looking.
QRadar offers more than 1,600 customizable reports which are categorised according to compliance, executive and operational abstract studies, security overview reports, network exercise and management stories, functions, and gadget-stage reviews.
Licensed in line with activities per 2nd (EPS), the product's starting rate for an all-in-one digital appliance with a hundred EPS is $10,seven-hundred, and the starting price for QRadar on Cloud with one hundred EPS is $800 per thirty days. quantity discounting is accessible.
LogRhythm Inc. safety Intelligence Platform
LogRhythm edition 7.4 points a few core capabilities, including a large information analytics structure; superior information processing; centralized visibility into security alerts and alarms; centralized visibility into forensic data; and the capability to practice artificial intelligence, complex scenario modeling, and deep behavioral analytics across a 360-degree view of forensic facts. different facets consist of case management, which permits security teams to interact in workflows the usage of a centralized and secure case administration facility; assignment automation; and immediately guided workflows.
in accordance with the business, greater granular measurements, equivalent to time to qualify and time to investigate, can assist analysts understand workflow effectiveness. These efficiency metrics can assist discover opportunities to improve operational effectivity, together with deciding upon tasks superior-ideal for automation and enabling protection leaders to measure and document on the effectiveness of safety courses.
LogRhythm leading dashboard has the capacity to focus on assorted users
Pricing for the LogRhythm platform starts off at $forty three,500, with subscription alternatives also available. Designed with that in intellect, its modular architecture grants enterprise scalability to satisfy long-time period wants, even with altering performance, storage and geographic requirements, the company claims.
McAfee LLC commercial enterprise security supervisor (ESM)
McAfee's enterprise protection supervisor (ESM) is a SIEM application tool for industrial, commercial enterprise and executive agencies, as well as managed safety carrier suppliers. ESM supplies chance and risk coverage in line with a SIEM architecture developed for huge records security analytics.
ESM collects logs from hundreds of data sources, integrates them with dozens of companions and supplements pursuits with hazard intelligence, offering actionable intelligence and real-time hazard management with new cybersecurity protections. An embedded compliance framework and content material Packs simplify its protection and compliance operations.
business safety supervisor 11.1 is the present version, as of this writing. edition 11 added features including:
bendy records structure, which is an open and scalable facts bus that shares tremendous information volumes;
scalable Ingestion and question performance, which supply horizontal expansion with high availability and the capability to unexpectedly query billions of events; and
elevated cloud assist for hardware digital desktop for AWS, workplace 365, Azure, Xen, Hyper-V and a commonplace cloud API to on board cloud records sources.
ESM is obtainable as an equipment or digital desktop that users can mix and healthy. ESM fashions include all-in-one models and discrete home equipment, and it will also be deployed on premises, within the cloud or in a hybrid environment. It supports deployments on AWS, Azure, Hyper-V, VMware and Xen.
while ESM gives the core SIEM capabilities, different components encompass high-speed statistics collection and experience correlation, elastic search for quick querying of activities, archival of uncooked pursuits for compliance and forensics, and layer three and 7 software-stage monitoring.
simple overview of McAfee utility, which keeps music of undertaking and feasible threats
The superior Correlation Engine delivers rule-based and statistical and behavioral-based mostly analytics for billions of movements. McAfee world possibility Intelligence can increase risk detection and investigation with a proprietary feed of probably malicious and primary-bad IP addresses.
different security facets of ESM consist of free content Packs, McAfee's edition of an app shop that provides prebuilt use instances, and ESM's Cyber chance supervisor, which consumes possibility intelligence and indications of compromised facts, enabling back tracing and the advent of a watchlist.
ESM also comprises a case administration equipment to track incident investigation, take notes and permit remediation by way of integrations inside the McAfee product ecosystem and any third-birthday celebration product that helps movements by the use of URL, command line, APIs or statistics exchange Layer. When higher volumes or complexities dictate more orchestration, ESM integrates with partners, together with ServiceNow, Phantom, Swimlane and Demisto.
ESM gives more than 800 report templates that cowl areas reminiscent of compliance, security, purposes, databases, community move, hazards and govt content. clients can create and alter reviews using a wizard.
home equipment are rated and offered by way of their means to tackle a undeniable experience-per-2d capacity in preference to a value per data source or expense per EPS. There aren't any enforced EPS limits on an ESM appliance and no licensing expenses for introduced records sources.
VMs are licensed the use of the equal philosophy and sold by using the number of CPU cores needed to assist a given EPS. This makes it possible for clients so as to add cores as mandatory without replacing hardware. Pricing for a common, all-in-one, VM-based mostly SKU focused at smaller consumers is $40,000 to $50,000.
Rapid7 Inc. InsightIDR
Rapid7's InsightIDR is a cloud-based mostly incident detection and response platform that can support security practitioners determine and investigate threats and targeted assaults. InsightIDR combines SIEM software with person and attacker conduct analytics, endpoint detection, and response brokers so clients can establish a compromise as soon as it happens and include it as at once as viable.
one of the most key elements of the utility is user conduct Analytics, which always baselines match person recreation across the corporation. This may be the best SIEM product for a corporation, as this extends past described indications of compromise in order that security authorities can become aware of attackers impersonating personnel, as well as insider threats.
in addition, Attacker habits Analytics take Rapid7's knowledge of prior attack endeavor and turns it into intelligence that may help security specialists discover assaults early.
Rapid7 also contains endpoint detection and visibility. With the device's perception Agent, security groups can notice regular and unknown malware, grab forensic artifacts on demand, and take containment actions for detected threats from inside InsightIDR. The Centralized Log management function links tens of millions of day by day movements in one atmosphere without delay to the clients and assets at the back of them. InsightIDR comes with a fast log search, prebuilt compliance cards and dashboards for elementary, constant reporting.
For any alert in InsightIDR, computerized moves can hearth to speed up case administration and probability containment. This includes developing cases in third-party ticketing methods, in addition to taking direct motion on user accounts and endpoints.
furthermore, deception expertise permits safety authorities so as to add vital monitoring alternatives and trick attackers with traps akin to honeypots, honey users, honey credentials and honey files. These traps discover behaviors that log evaluation by myself can fail to seize.
InsightIDR allows users to create studies out of custom dashboards, producing reports either once or on a preconfigured schedule.
Rapid7 costs InsightIDR in response to the full number of assets in a company.
RSA NetWitness Platform
RSA NetWitness Platform is created from RSA NetWitness Logs, RSA NetWitness community and RSA NetWitness Endpoint. RSA NetWitness UEBA -- user and Entity behavior Analytics -- and RSA NetWitness Orchestrator increase the core platform with behavioral analytics and security orchestration, automation, and response capabilities.
The platform features a protection Analytics Engine, which makes it possible for analysts to notice and reply to threats during a firm's infrastructure, including within the cloud, virtualized programs and containerized substances.
businesses can install add-ons in any aggregate of application or actual or virtual appliance, as well as within cloud environments.
The RSA NetWitness Logs, community and Endpoint modules may also be deployed personally or collectively, and that they guide a range of third-celebration records sources and functions.
RSA NetWitness UEBA offers unsupervised, wholly computerized, and continual hazard detection and monitoring using a turnkey statistics science mannequin. RSA NetWitness Orchestrator offers safety automation and orchestration capabilities that may enable analysts to swiftly examine incidents and automate workflows. The tool's platform reporting capabilities consist of developed-in and customized reviews helping a few security and compliance necessities.
agencies should purchase the RSA NetWitness Platform as a term or perpetual license and set up it as a software, equipment or digital appliance, in any aggregate. Pricing for the RSA NetWitness Platform is based on both records throughput for RSA NetWitness Logs and Packets, clients monitored for RSA NetWitness UEBA, variety of analysts using RSA NetWitness Orchestrator, or capacity -- equipment hardware. organizations can mix and in shape application and equipment licenses for granular skill and boom.
Splunk Inc. enterprise protection
Splunk business protection (ES) is a component of Splunk commercial enterprise, and it offers the skill to go looking, video display and analyze facts to convey insights about security the usage of SIEM utility.
Splunk ES makes use of analytics that permit safety teams to find, examine and respond to internal and external attacks. The utility aggregates safety pursuits as quickly as the sources generate them.
Use case library showcasing most fulfilling practices inside the Splunk application
event Sequencing presents the skill to neighborhood correlated searches into clusters of hobbies. Splunk claims this clustering enhances the visibility and responsiveness of pursuits and hurries up investigations.
additional security capabilities include Splunk's Adaptive Response. With this feature, users can apply alterations to adapt to the tactics of a given attacker. Splunk ES contains with Splunk consumer conduct Analytics, where unsupervised computer studying algorithms deliver anomaly and chance detection. Splunk has also increased its safety tools to maintain music of the ever-becoming mass of facts.
The Use Case Library characteristic can help organizations bolster protection with critical content via automatically identifying which uses instances are most principal to their own ambiance based on the ingested records.
agencies can also use the platform to create, curate, installation and control content, that can aid cut back risk by using proposing quicker detection and incident response to new threats. in addition, Splunk ES gives advert hoc searching and reporting capabilities for breach evaluation, Splunk claims.
Splunk bases pricing for Splunk ES on maximum each day extent of facts indexed in GB per day.
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Surfline, the world's leading action sports website, today announced it has accepted a strategic round of financing from prominent Internet pioneer, Kevin O'Connor, who will also been joining the Surfline board of directors.
Kevin was the co-founder, CEO and Chairman of DoubleClick, Inc. (NASDAQ: DCLK), the leading provider of ad serving technology on the Internet. DoubleClick was recently acquired by Google for over $3 billion. In addition, Kevin has helped launch numerous leading software entities, including ICC and Internet Security Systems (NASDAQ: ISSX) -- a business that was sold to IBM in 2006 for $1.3 billion. Kevin has also been an investor and advisor to companies like 1800flowers.com and Hotjobs, which was acquired by Yahoo in 2002.
"We look forward to Kevin's involvement in helping us grow Surfline across the globe," said Chairman Jeff Berg. "Kevin's skill sets with Internet businesses are matched by his passion as a surfer and Surfline Premium Member. This opportunistic round of financing, along with Kevin's capabilities and interests, will allow us to invest more aggressively in a number of initiatives that will make our sites more functional and enjoyable for surfers, ocean enthusiasts and others worldwide."
ABOUT SURFLINESurfline/Wavetrak Inc. is the world's leading collection of water enthusiast websites, all of which combine proprietary conditions-reporting and forecasting with timely news, information and entertainment. The sites are aimed at the core of each sport, yet they include content that appeals to a broader lifestyle audience as well. As a group, Surfline websites are visited are by over 1.5 million unique people each month.
This article breaks down the best OSINT tools, techniques, resources and websites available online for every stage of intelligence gathering process. From background reading, to organising your research and getting the best out of search engines, Intelligence Fusion has created the ultimate list of open source intelligence tools.
We’ll cover the following;
What is OSINT?
The Best OSINT Websites for Background Reading
OSINT Techniques to Organise your Thoughts
Setting up Automated Alerts using OSINT Tools
OSINT Tools for Social Media
OSINT Techniques: Getting the Best out of Search Engines
Platforms and Dashboards for Open Source Intelligence
OSINT Websites for Online News Media
Other Useful OSINT Tools
What is OSINT?
Open source intelligence, or OSINT, is the collection and analysis of information that is gathered from public, or open, sources.
The Best OSINT Websites for Background Reading
This is a platform used to share papers, monitor their impact, and follow the research in a particular field. Academia.edu currently has over 21 million papers.
2. CORE (COnnecting REpositories)
CORE promotes free and unrestricted access to research outputs from repositories and journals worldwide. The public can search through a collection of over 125 millions of harvested research outputs which can be downloaded free of charge.
3. Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, newspapers, maps and manuscripts in its collections.
4. Open Knowledge Maps
Open Knowledge Maps presents you with a topical overview of your search term. It’s based on the 100 most relevant documents for your search term, which allows you to easily identify useful, pertinent information.
WolframAlpha is an online service that answers factual queries directly by computing the answer from externally sourced “curated data”, unlike a search engine that provides a list of documents or web pages that might contain the answer the searcher is looking for.
BASE is one of the world’s most voluminous search engines especially for academic web resources. BASE provides more than 120 million documents from more than 6,000 sources. You can access the full texts of about 60% of the indexed documents for free.
7. Google Scholar
Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.
8. Disputed Territories
This map identifies the locations and territories that are claimed by more than one country or occupying force.
OSINT Techniques to Organise your Thoughts
1. Microsoft OneNote
Microsoft OneNote is a free-form information gathering and multi-user collaboration. It gathers users’ notes, drawings, screen clippings and audio commentaries and allows your OSINT resources to be easily shared amongst other users online.
Setting up Automated Alerts using OSINT Tools
1. Google Alerts
Google Alerts is a content change detection and notification service that can be used as an open source intelligence tool. It will send emails to you when it finds new results matching your specified search term.
2. Talkwalker Alerts
Talkwalker is an alternative free alert system to Google Alerts that offers a higher level of customisation on alerts and notifications. Talkwalker can also monitor social media mentions of your specified search term.
OSINT Tools for Social Media
1. Seek A Tweet
Seekatweet is designed to help you find relevant tweets in a specific location. You can use their tailored filtering as an OSINT tool to find Tweets near you or anywhere else in the world.
2. One Million Tweet Map
The one million tweet map is a social media tool that you can use to visualise tweets and aggregated Twitter data in a world map. It can be useful when conduction real-time OSINT investigations.
Tweepler is a real time map of tweets coming from various locations. The tweets shown on the map are only the fresh tweets. They are displayed as soon as received. No tweet location is older than a fraction of a minute.
Hashatit.com is a social search engine for hashtags. You can search tags across all social media platforms, bringing everything relevant to your OSINT research to one place in real time.
An advanced Instagram search engine, Mulpix makes searching Instagram as an OSINT technique even easier through the leverage of searching via multiple hashtags.
Picodash is another Instagram search engine OSINT tool to help you to search and analyse Instagram content by location and hashtags.
Echosec is a location-based social media geofencing platform that analyses data in real-time to support retail, journalists, marketers and security teams as an open source intelligence tool.
TweetDeck is a social media dashboard application for management of Twitter accounts. OSINT analysts can create live feeds of tweets to monitor specified hashtags, handles or mentions.
OSINT Techniques: Getting the Best out of Search Engines
Carrot² is an open source search results clustering engine. It can automatically cluster small collections of documents, for example search results or document abstracts, into thematic categories
Newslookup.com is a news search engine, news headline, news feed and news services provider that crawls several thousand news media sites providing time based live run down of headlines by region, topic or person.
Cluuz is a search engine that can be used as a really useful OSINT tool. Cluuz shows not only links to related pages, but also entities and images that are extracted from within the search results. In addition to the results, Cluuz displays a tag cloud of the most relevant entities extracted from returned results.
Platforms and Dashboards for Open Source Intelligence
HealthMap brings together disparate data sources to achieve a unified and comprehensive view of the current global state of infectious diseases.
2. Investigative Database
The Investigative Database allows open source analysts to browse their global index of public registries for companies, land registries and courts as well as search millions of documents and datasets, from public sources, leaks and investigations.
3. IBM Watson News Explorer
The IBM Watson News Explorer automatically constructs a news information network and presents large volumes of news results in an understandable fashion.
4. Human Trafficking Search
HTS produces a weekly blog, publishes research, and hosts a global resource database on human trafficking and modern-day slavery.
5. Marine Traffic
MarineTraffic is a provider of ship tracking and maritime intelligence. Monitoring vessel movements to build a base of data gathered from our network of coastal AIS-receiving stations, supplemented by satellite receivers.
Iris is an application developed by the World Customs Organisation that monitors open source information and presents this information in a graphic-style world map in real-time.
7. ICC Live Piracy Report
This live map from ICC shows all of the piracy and armed robbery incidents reported to IMB Piracy Reporting Centre.
ACLED is a realtime data and analysis source on political violence and protest. As an OSINT tool, analysts and researched can use ACLED for the latest reliable information on current conflict and disorder patterns.
OSINT Websites for Online News Media
NewsNow aims to be the world’s most accurate and comprehensive world news aggregator, bringing you the latest global current affairs headlines
AllYouCanRead.com is the largest database of magazines and newspapers on the Internet, with listings for about 25,000 magazines, newspapers and top news sites from all over the world.
3. Newspaper Map
Newspaper map is a free webapp that helps you find over 10,000 of the world’s online newspapers, and in many cases get to their Google translations in one click.
4. Distill Web Monitor
Monitor webpage or feed for changes asn an open source intelligence tool. Distill runs in your browser to check monitored pages for changes and can send you instant alerts via SMS or email as soon as a change is detected.
Feedly is a news aggregator application that can be used to compiles news feeds from a variety of OSINT websites, online sources and allows the you to customise and share with others users online.
Other Useful OSINT Tools
Additional tools that can be used as part of an OSINT framework can be found below.
As part of our open source intelligence course, we provide extensive training on the most effective way to use these OSINT tools as well as an impressive and diverse range of additional modules, all built using real-life experiences from our ex-military and intelligence expert team.
1. IntelTechniques and Image Search
5. Way Back Machine
6. Transparency International
8. Naval Open Source Intelligence
10. Relief Web
12. Police Sites
13. CIA Factbook
14. FBI Vault
15. OSAC Report
16. Global Terrorism Database
Intelligence Fusion uses these sources, teamed with military-grade processes and structure to enable a new way of thinking, encouraging analysts to adapt alternative mindsets to better discover, evaluate and understand threats of every kind.
Our OSINT training course can be adapted to clients’ requirements and tailored to meet bespoke requests. We have the capacity to conduct face to face training, across the globe, or alternatively, we can also deliver the open source ntelligence course remotely.
If you’d like further insight into what our training programme consists of, you can download a selection of slides from our standard training modules by clicking here.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intervertebral disk biochemical composition could be accessed in vivo by T1ρ and T2 relaxometry. We found no studies in the literature comparing different segmentation methods for data extraction using these techniques. Our aim was to compare different manual segmentation methods used to extract T1ρ and T2 relaxation times of intervertebral disks from MR imaging. Seven different methods of partial-disk segmentation techniques were compared with whole-disk segmentation as the reference standard.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sagittal T1ρ and T2 maps were generated by using a 1.5T MR imaging scanner in 57 asymptomatic volunteers 20–40 years of age. Two hundred eighty-five lumbar disks were separated into 2 groups: nondegenerated disk (Pfirrmann I and II) and degenerated disk (Pfirrmann III and IV). In whole-disk segmentation, the disk was segmented in its entirety on all sections. Partial-disk segmentation methods included segmentation of the disk into 6, 5, 4, 3, and 1 sagittal sections. Circular ROIs positioned in the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus were also used to extract T1ρ and T2, and data were compared with whole-disk segmentation
RESULTS: In the nondegenerated group, segmentation of ≥5 sagittal sections showed no statistical difference with whole-disk segmentation. All the remaining partial-disk segmentation methods and circular ROIs showed different results from whole-disk segmentation (P < .001). In the degenerated disk group, all methods were statistically similar to whole-disk segmentation. All partial-segmentation methods, including circular ROIs, showed strong linear correlation with whole-disk segmentation in both the degenerated and nondegenerated disk groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Manual segmentation showed strong reproducibility for T1ρ and T2 and strong linear correlation between partial- and whole-disk segmentation. Absolute T1ρ and T2 values extracted from different segmentation techniques were statistically different in disks with Pfirrmann grades I and II.
anterior annulus fibrosus
intraclass correlation coefficient
posterior annulus fibrosus
MR imaging is considered the best noninvasive method to study intervertebral disks. MR imaging allows the visualization of clearly different anatomic disk subregions, including the nucleus pulposus (NP) and the annulus fibrosus (AF).1,2 However, routine clinical images provide a qualitative or semiquantitative assessment made by an expert.3 The need for a better understanding of physiologic and pathologic processes in the disk led to the application of quantitative techniques in MR imaging such as T1ρ and T2 mapping.3,4
For the extraction of quantitative data from a given region of interest, it is necessary to perform segmentation procedures that involve selecting the region to be analyzed.5 This segmentation can be manual, semiautomatic, or automatic. In studies assessing the lumbar intervertebral disk composition, different authors used different methods to perform disk segmentation with subsequent data extraction. The most common method in the literature with regard to T1ρ and T2 is to acquire small regions of interest that are anatomically based.6⇓⇓–9 Authors have used standard ROIs, delineating subregions within the intervertebral disk to extract quantitative data specifically from the NP and AF.6,7 Additional intermediate ROIs on boundaries between the nucleus and annulus have also been used.8,9 In the latter, intermediate ROIs were implemented to compensate for the increased steps for segmentation in each image. These studies analyzed a limited number of MR imaging sections. The segmentation using a few MR imaging sections and regional ROIs allows the extraction of data more quickly than segmenting the whole intervertebral disk. Other authors chose to perform the segmentation of the disk as a whole, with the region of interest covering the NP and AF simultaneously.10,11 The use of segmentation of only the central MR imaging sagittal section to extract quantitative data from the intervertebral disk is also very common in the literature.12,13
The intervertebral disk structure is nonuniform with differences in hydration and collagen content between NP and AF. Therefore, the extraction of different T1ρ and T2 relaxation times may be expected depending on the segmentation method used.10,14 Despite the potential importance of using different segmentation methods in the evaluation of the intervertebral disk composition, we have not found studies comparing the accuracy, reliability, and reproducibility of the results generated by different segmentation methods. Our hypothesis is that partial segmentation of intervertebral disks, especially through standard geometric regional ROIs, will result in the extraction of different T1ρ and T2 relaxation times compared with full segmentation.
Materials and Methods
This study was approved by the institutional review board. The volunteers were recruited through institutional review board–approved local advertisement and were selected on the basis of the inclusion criteria. We recruited 57 asymptomatic adults (25 men and 32 women), with a mean age of 26.54 ± 5.0 years (range, 20–40 years); mean height, 1.69 ± 0.08 m (1.53–1.90 m); mean weight, 67.52 ± 13.85 kg (range, 46.5–105 kg); and mean body mass index, 23.5 ± 3.4 kg/m2 (range, 15.9–30.3 kg/m2). The inclusion criteria for the volunteers were the following: 20–40 years of age with an Oswestry Dysfunction Index score <10. Volunteers with persistent low back pain for at least 6 months; an Oswestry Dysfunction Index score >10; or previous spinal pathology, significant scoliosis, or surgery were excluded from the study.
All 5 lumbar disks of the 57 volunteers were studied; therefore, we evaluated 285 disks. The intervertebral disks were graded according to the Pfirrmann et al classification.14 After classification by the Pfirrmann grading system, we divided the intervertebral disks into 2 subgroups: nondegenerated (grades I and II) = 224 disks and degenerated (grades III and IV) = 61 disks. In our sample, we found no grade V intervertebral disks according to the Pfirrmann et al classification.
All MR imaging examinations were performed by using a 1.5T scanner (Achieva; Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands). We used a 16-channel spine coil (SENSE-SPINE; Philips). Volunteers were kept still in a supine position with the lower limbs extended and relaxed. The study protocol included a 2D fast spin-echo sequence with the following characteristics: orientation = sagittal, FOV = 22 × 22 cm, thickness = 4 mm, number of sections = 16, matrix = 256 × 256 and no intersection gap. For the segmentation process, we acquired a T2-weighted sagittal sequence, with TE = 120 ms and TR = 3900 ms. Spin-echo sequences were acquired to generate quantitative T1ρ and T2 maps. We used the following parameters—T2 multiecho sequence: TE = 20/40/60/80/100/120/140/160 ms and TR = 3000 ms; T1ρ multilocker times sequence: TE = 20 ms, TR = 2000 ms, Tlock = 2/10/20/40/60 ms. The total MR imaging acquisition time was 13 minutes.
The Display software (McConell Brain Imaging Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) was used for image analysis and segmentation. The segmentation process was performed on the sagittal plane according to the illustrations in Figs 1 and 2. The segmentation of 285 disks was performed by 2 independent and blinded observers, taking care not to include regions of subchondral bone. They were previously trained for 2 months in manual spinal MR imaging segmentation and were supervised by a senior radiologist with 15 years' experience in musculoskeletal radiology and spine MR imaging. First, full manual segmentation of the whole intervertebral disk, encompassing NP and AF, for each disk in all 12 sections was performed for all lumbar disks of each volunteer (whole-disk segmentation [WDS]). Partial-disk segmentation (PDS) methods were performed by using 6 different techniques according to the illustration in Fig 1 by using the following: 6 sections (PDS-6), 5 sections (PDS-5A and PDS-5B), 4 sections (PDS-4), 3 sections (PDS-3), and only 1 central section (PDS-1). Extraction of T1ρ and T2 relaxation times was also performed by using 3 circular ROIs (CROI) placed on the NP, anterior annulus fibrosus (AAF), and posterior annulus fibrosus (PAF) by using 3 distinct sagittal sections as shown in Fig 2. The most central region of the NP was marked by using a region of interest with an area of 26.77 mm2. This region was labeled regardless of the presence or absence of a nuclear cleft. ROIs with 12.75 mm2 each were used in the regions of AAF and PAF. We placed ROIs on the most anterior and posterior regions of the annulus, avoiding selecting the transition regions between the AF and NP.
On the left is a sagittal T2-weighted image representing the segmented region of the intervertebral disk. On the right is the number of sections used in partial segmentation methods. A, Whole-disk segmentation. B, Partial-disk segmentation using 6 sections (PDS-6). C, Partial-disk segmentations using 5 sections, method A (PDS-5A). D, Partial disk segmentation using 5 sections, method B (PDS-5B). E, Partial-disk segmentation using 4 sections (PDS-4). F, Partial disk segmentation using 3 sections (PDS-3). G, Partial-disk segmentation using 1 central section (PDS-1).
A, The CROI subregions are indicated in a T2-weighted image in the sagittal plane of a volunteer: blue for the nucleus pulposus, red for the anterior annulus fibrosus, and yellow for the posterior annulus fibrosus. B, Axial image in which the CROI method was used.
The main researcher was the first observer, responsible for the segmentation of all 285 lumbar disks. One hundred disks were randomly selected for intra- and interobserver reproducibility analysis, 50 from the degenerated group and 50 from the nondegenerated group. These disks were segmented a second time by the first and second observer with an interval of 2 months after the first segmentation.
The analysis of intra- and interobserver variability was performed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 99% confidence intervals for all lumbar levels.
To analyze the distribution of T2 and T1ρ relaxation times, the Shapiro-Wilk test (99% significance level) was used for each segmentation method. The WDS was chosen as the reference standard with which all PDS methods and CROI were compared. Repeated-measures ANOVA with the Dunnett posttest was used for parametric samples. For the nonparametric samples, we used the Friedman test with the Dunn posttest. P values < .05 were statistically significant. We also performed a linear regression and correlation to verify that the relaxation times of partial segmentation methods showed a linear relationship to the WDS values. For statistical analysis and for the creation of graphs and tables, we used GraphPad Prism software, Version 5 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, California). To calculate the ICC, we used SPSS, Version 20 (IBM, Armonk, New York).
The values of T2 and T1ρ relaxation times of the regions of the disk are shown in Table 1. In the nondegenerated group, in both T2 and T1ρ mapping, the methods PDS-6 and PDS-5B showed the average nearest to WDS, also with a lower SD. In the segmentation techniques with fewer sections, the average relaxation times extracted were more distanced from the results obtained with WDS and had a larger SD. In the degenerated disk subgroup, on the other hand, the values obtained from both T2 and T1ρ mappings were similar and did not differ statistically between the WDS, PDS, and CROI.
Values of the T2 and T1ρ relaxation times (ms) expressed as average and SD for each experimental method (n = 285 disks)
In Tables 2 and 3 are the results of intraclass correlation coefficients and confidence intervals for each technique in the nondegenerated and degenerated groups. The ICC was higher for T1ρ and T2 in the NP and whole disk than for AAF and PAF. These results of intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility were similar between degenerated and nondegenerated disk groups.
ICCs and 99% CIs for intra-and interobserver analysis of quantitative techniques (n = 50) used in the nondegenerated group
ICCs and 99% CIs for intra- and interobserver analysis of quantitative techniques (n = 50) used in the degenerated group
The ANOVA test for T2 relaxometry and the Friedman test for T1ρ relaxometry were used to evaluate whether the relaxation times obtained by different segmentation methods were similar. Our results showed statistically significant differences between the results of different segmentation techniques of nondegenerated cases (T2: P < .0001, F = 74.33; T1ρ: P < .0001, Friedman = 299.2). The exception occurred for the PDS-6 and PDS-5B methods, in which relaxation times extracted for both T2 and for the T1ρ were not statistically different from those of WDS. The degenerated group showed a different behavior, in which there was no statistical difference among WDS, PDS, and CROI for both T2 (P = .45, F = 0.97) and T1ρ mapping (P = .14, Friedman = 64.41).
Table 4 presents the correlations between the partial-segmentation methods and WDS. The R values were higher in the methods that used more sections. Comparing T1ρ and T2 mapping, one could see that the values of T2 relaxation times were discretely more scattered compared with those of T1ρ relaxation times. In both mappings, the number of sections used decreased and the confidence intervals were larger. All methods also showed a significant positive correlation with WDS (Table 4) (P < .0001). The values were much higher in NP compared with AF in the nondegenerated group for the both T1ρ and T2 relaxometry. In the degenerated disk group, the relaxation times of NP and AF had a more similar behavior in relation to the whole disk. This result was more evident for T1ρ mapping.
Correlation between whole-disk and partial-disk segmentation methodsa
In this research, we studied different techniques of extraction of T2 and T1ρ relaxation times from the lumbar intervertebral disks and compared various PDS methods with the WDS. Our results suggest that the choice of the segmentation method can influence the absolute results obtained. For practical reasons, most previous studies have used small geometric ROIs for degenerative disk disease.9,15 We did not find any previous study in vivo that explored the segmentation of the intervertebral disk to its full extent.
Our results (Tables 2 and 3) showed a high intra- and interobserver reproducibility for T2 and T1ρ, both for the nondegenerated and degenerated groups. The intra- and interobserver ICCs were stronger for NP and WDS. AF ICC values were moderate because the placement of ROIs in AF tends to be a bit more difficult. This is especially true in cases of severely degenerated disks, when the border zone between the NP and AF becomes indistinct with progressive incorporation of nucleus pulposus material into the interior of the annular lamellae.16⇓–18
PDS-6 and PDS-5B results for T2 and T1ρ were statistically similar to those of WDS in the nondegenerated group. Our results suggest that about 50% of the disk structure needs to be segmented so that the results would be comparable with those extracted via WDS on intervertebral disks with Pfirrmann grades I and II. As previously described in the literature,3,11,19 if the extraction of T2 and T1ρ emphasizes the central sections, it may overestimate the glycosaminoglycan content of the disk.
In the degenerated disk group, partial segmentation methods and CROI showed results similar to those of the full segmentation. This outcome may have occurred by the accentuated loss of proteoglycans and water and replacement by type I collagen in NP.20 Thus, in degenerated disks, the relaxation time of NP became very close to that of AF because the disk composition becomes more homogeneous.15,21
In cases of severe scoliosis, disk degeneration may occur unevenly in different regions of the disk.22⇓–24 The presence of volunteers with scoliosis could potentially affect our results of comparison between different segmentation techniques, but it did not occur because we had no case of scoliosis. Panoramic radiographs were available for each case due to another research project in progress from our group. The presence of osteophytes should also be considered carefully so that the segmentation does not encompass these regions.25 Other accentuated postural changes, vertebral fractures, listhesis, or extruded disk herniation could also result in uneven disk degeneration,24,26 so that using only central sagittal sections for data extraction could result in a different composition assessment of the disk. Our sample had no volunteer with deformities, fractures, or disk herniation.
Our results support the use of partial segmentation methods in the study of intervertebral disk composition because PDS and CROI methods showed, in general, excellent correlation to the WDS method (Table 4). However, the comparison among results of different studies that used different segmentation methods should be done with caution.15,27 Our results demonstrate that the use of different segmentation techniques may result in measurement of different values of intervertebral disk relaxation times.
Regarding the comparison of our results with the literature, the NP T2 relaxation times were very close to those reported in previous studies.9,28,29 For the AF T2, our results were similar to those of Stelzeneder et al28 and Welsch et al,29 and slightly higher than those of Trattnig et al.9 With respect to the T1ρ relaxation times, the values encountered for the NP and AF in our study were lower than those found in the literature.12,30⇓–32 We hypothesize that at least in part, this difference may be due to different magnetic field strengths, because most of the previous studies used 3T MR imaging.12,31,32 In common with authors of other studies, we found that a greater degree of degeneration implies lower T2 and T1ρ relaxation times.
When we compared the individual relaxation times of NP, AAF, and PAF, all 3 regions showed statistical correlation with the WDS values. In the nondegenerated group, the NP values had a stronger correlation with WDS, suggesting that their influence on the relaxation time of the whole disk is larger than that from AF, as has already been described in the literature.19,20 The annulus fibrosus also follows the uniform changes of the whole disk, but less than the nucleus.33 However, in the degenerated group, the relaxation times of NP and AF showed a more similar behavior in relation to the whole disk. Antoniou et al21 used MR imaging quantitative techniques and also a mechanical test to study the intervertebral disks and found similarities in the NP and AF behavior over the degenerative processes. This finding shows that both regions are affected evenly, especially at the beginning of the degeneration. This phenomenon was more evident in T1ρ mapping because this method has proved more affinity with loss of proteoglycan content, which has been suggested as a major trigger of the degenerative process, resulting in a low relaxation time.12,13
Most studies in the literature preferred segmentation of NP and AF individually.28⇓⇓⇓–32,34 In intervertebral disks with Pfirrmann grades I and II, segmenting these structures separately usually makes it possible to distinguish them better. If the degeneration increases to grades III and IV, this distinction becomes more difficult.14 Thus, a relative advantage of performing segmentation of the whole area or the whole volume of the disk is to enable a more secure comparison among disks with different degrees of degeneration.
A relative limitation of our study is that we included only young and asymptomatic volunteers; therefore, the results may not be extended to the symptomatic population. We also did not have Pfirrmann grade V intervertebral disks. This probably is not an important practical limitation in the research field because composition studies from quantitative MR imaging are less likely to be applied to severely degenerated disks.
Numerous researchers have used quantitative MR imaging to improve the understanding of intervertebral disk degeneration. During the past 10 years, the use of quantitative MR imaging techniques, especially T2 and T1ρ relaxometry, have allowed the evaluation of the intervertebral disk composition in vivo. However, the lack of standardization for data collection may impair the comparison of results from different studies. Despite the growing importance of relaxometry for in vivo evaluation of intervertebral disk biochemical composition and disk degeneration, we did not find studies concerned with the comparison of different segmentation techniques. When one envisions future research about the etiology and risk factors for disk degeneration, the standardization of T2 and T1ρ mapping may assume a great importance.
Manual segmentation showed strong reproducibility for degenerated and nondegenerated disks. The segmentation methods we compared showed excellent linear correlation with each other. Absolute T1ρ and T2 values extracted from different segmentation techniques were statistically different in intervertebral disks with Pfirrmann grades I and II.
The authors acknowledge the funding support from CNPq, CAPES and FINEP.
Disclosures: Rafael Menezes-Reis—RELATED: Grant: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Comments: Masters scholarship; Support for Travel to Meetings for the Study or Other Purposes: Council for Scientific and Technological Development, Comments: support provided by CNPq. Camila Silva de Carvalho—RELATED: Grant: scientific initiation scholarship from R-USP, Comments: from August 1, 2012, to July 31, 2013, $400.00. Gustavo P. Bonugli—UNRELATED: Board Membership: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. Christine B. Chung—UNRELATED: Grants/Grants Pending: National Institutes of Health,* Comments: NIDCR TMJ grant. Marcello H. Nogueira-Barbosa—RELATED: Grant: FINEP,* Comments: funding sources: Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Brazil, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. *Money paid to the institution.
Received June 30, 2014.
Accepted after revision August 15, 2014.
© 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology