VENDORS

Students' Testimonials



Killexams.com 310-012 Dumps and Real Questions 2019

Latest and 100% real exam Questions - Memorize Questions and Answers - Guaranteed Success in exam



310-012 exam Dumps Source : Solaris 8 System Administration II

Test Code : 310-012
Test Name : Solaris 8 System Administration II
Vendor Name : SUN
Q&A : 325 Real Questions

discovered an correct source for real 310-012 contemporary dumps.
started out getting ready for the difficult 310-012 exam the use of the heavy and voluminous study books. but failed tocrack the tough topics and got panicked. i was about to drop the exam whilst any individual stated me the dumpwith the aid of killexams. It was virtually smooth to study and the fact that I may want to memorize all in a brief time, removed all my apprehensions. ought to crack 67 questions in only 76 mins and got a big eighty five marks. Felt indebted to killexams.com for making my day.


simply those 310-012 modern day dumps and examine manual is required to pass the take a look at.
The killexams.com Questions & solutions made me effective enough to break up this exam. I endeavored 90/ninety five questions in due time and passed effectively. I never considered passing. a lot obliged killexams.com for help me in passing the 310-012. With a complete time work and an authentic diploma preparation aspect by way of side made me greatly occupied to equip myself for the 310-012 exam. by one method or every other I came to reflect onconsideration on killexams.


need real exam questions of 310-012 exam? download here.
My exam preparation happened into 44 right replies of the combination 50 inside the planned 75 mins. It labored simplytruly the tremendous. I were given an appealing revel in counting on the killexams.com dumps for the exam 310-012. The aide clarified with compact answers and affordable instances.


worried for 310-012 exam? Get this 310-012 query bank.
With only two weeks to go for my 310-012 exam, I felt so helpless considering my poor preparation. But, needed to pass the test badly as I wanted to change my job. Finally, I found the question and answer by killexams.com which removed my worries. The content of the guide was rich and unique. The simple and short answers helped make out the topics easily. Great guide, killexams. Also took help from 310-012 Official Cert Guide and it helped.


Prepare 310-012 Questions and Answers otherwise Be prepared to fail.
killexams.com questions and answers was absolutely suitable. I cleared my 310-012 exam with sixty eight.25% marks. The questions were sincerely good. They preserve updating the database with new questions. And men, cross for it - they by no means disappoint you. thanks so much for this.


Do you want state-of-the-art dumps of 310-012 exam to clear the examination?
I actually have recommended approximately your gadgets to various companions and partners, and theyre all extremely fulfilled. Much obliged killexams.com Questions & Answers for enhancing up my profession and assisting me plan nicely for my severe checks. Much liked another time. I ought to say that I am your greatest fan! I want you to recognize that I cleared my 310-012 exam these days, contemplating the 310-012 direction notes I purchased from you. I solved 86/95 questions in the exam. You are the best training issuer.


i discovered a terrific location for 310-012 question financial institution.
At closing, my marks 90% turned into more than choice. on the point when the exam 310-012 turned into handiest 1 week away, my planning changed into in an indiscriminate situation. I expected that i would want to retake inside the occasion of unhappiness to get eighty% marks. Taking after a partners advice, i bought the Q&A from killexams.com and will take a mild arrangement through typically composed material.


need to-the-factor expertise modern day 310-012 subjects!
Failure to lie in those meaning that it was those very moments that we couldnt learn to forget but now we all know that whether or not there was some cause to the little thing that we couldnt not see just yet those stuff that we werent supposed to know so now you must know that I cleared my 310-012 test and it was better than anything and yes I did with killexams.com and it wasnt such a bad thing at all to study online for a change and not sulk at home with my books.


got no trouble! three days education latest 310-012 dumps is needed.
I have been so susceptible my entire way yet I know now that I had to get a skip in my 310-012 and this can make me popular probable and yes I am quick of radiance but passing my exams and solved nearly all questions in just 75 minutes with killexams.com dumps. A couple of splendid guys cant bring a alternate to planets manner but they can just permit you to recognize whether or not youve got been the principle fellow who knew a way to try this and I want to be acknowledged on this global and make my personal precise imprint.


Do the quickest manner to skip 310-012 exam? i have got it.
Its concise solutions helped me to accomplish top marks noting all questions below the stipulated time in 310-012. Being an IT master, my competencies with respect are so forth need to be precise. now not withstanding, proceeding with a standard employment with giant obligations, it changed into no longer easy for me to take a stable making plans. At that point, i discovered out approximately the usually organized question and solution aide of killexams.com dumps.


SUN Solaris 8 System Administration

Solaris 8 consumer Administration tools | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Peter Gregory discusses user account configuration data; including, editing, and deleting person debts with Admintool and shell commands; user shells; and user account instructions in Solaris eight.

This pattern chapter is excerpted from solar licensed system Administrator for Solaris eight examine ebook, by way of Peter Gregory.

This chapter is from the ebook 

After finishing this chapter, you will be able to

  • determine here login procedures: log right into a equipment, log off of a device, and change login passwords.

  • State the command used to identify which users are at present logged into the gadget.

  • State the steps required to create consumer bills on the native gadget the usage of the admintool utility.

  • State the command syntax so as to add, modify, or delete consumer/neighborhood accounts on the native equipment with the useradd, groupadd, usermod, groupmod, userdel, or groupdel commands.

  • Given a user's login shell, list the shell initialization info used to deploy a user's work environment at login.

  • to meet these targets, this chapter discusses:

  • consumer account configuration data;

  • including, modifying, and deleting user bills with Admintool;

  • including, enhancing, and deleting user accounts with shell commands;

  • person shells; and

  • user account commands.

  • Three primary information define the id of a consumer account: the password file, the shadow file, and the community file.

    The Password File

    The password file contains the primary making a choice on suggestions for each and every consumer allowed to entry a system. The gadget vicinity of the password file is /and many others/passwd. The format of the password file is:

    username:password:uid:gid:gcos-field:home-dir:login-shell

    These fields are:

  • username—the identify that identifies the consumer account.

  • password—in Solaris eight an "x" in this box signifies that the corresponding shadow file includes the encrypted password string.

  • uid—the interesting numerical identity assigned to the account. The optimum price for UID is 2147483647, but directors are urged to use values below 60,000 to be certain compatibility with the entire tools that are used to manage money owed or display tips that includes usernames.

  • gid—the basic (default) numerical neighborhood identification assigned to the account. like the UID field, the highest cost for GID is 2147483647, but a maximum of 60,000 is preferable.

  • gcos-field—here's the person's real identify (the time period "gcos-box" is the historical term for this container).

  • domestic-dir—the directory where the user is placed after logging in; this constantly includes the user's own files and directories.

  • login-shell—the preliminary shell it really is started on behalf of the user upon logging in. If this box is blank, then /usr/bin/sh is used.

  • The password file can be examine by anyone on the equipment. There isn't any information that have to be stored secret in this file. A sample password file feels like this:

    root:x:0:1:super-user:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:three:three::/: adm:x:four:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:seventy one:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:four:community Admin:/usr/internet/nls: pete:x:a hundred:4:Peter Gregory:/export/home/pete:/bin/sh no one:x:60001:60001:no one:/:

    Fields within the password file are delimited with the aid of colons (":"), and clean fields are signified through two adjoining colons ("::"). as an example, be aware that the account identify container for daemon is clean—simply two colons. additionally, daemon has no shell entry, so the ultimate character for daemon is the colon delimiter.

    The colon delimiter is additionally used within the shadow and community info, that are mentioned in a later area.

    it is viable and permissible to create a couple of username within the password file with the equal UID. every username may have its personal wonderful password. despite the fact, tools comparable to ls and ps, when used with alternatives exhibiting username, will monitor the first username found in the password file matching the UID.

    When a new account is brought, changed, or eliminated with the useradd, usermod, or userdel instructions (that are discussed later in this chapter), the gadget creates a backup copy of the password file, called /etc/opasswd.

    The Shadow File

    The shadow file carries every consumer account's encrypted password, as well as specific per-account parameters governing "password aging." The gadget location of the shadow file is /etc/shadow. The format of the shadow file is:

    username:password:lastchg:min:max:warn:inactive:expire:flag

    These fields are:

  • username—here is the equal username present in the password file.

  • password—a 13-character encrypted password. If this box consists of a lock string (e.g., "locked" or "NP"), the account is inaccessible; if blank, the account has no password.

  • lastchg—date of closing password trade (actually the variety of days between January 1, 1970, and the date the password become last modified).

  • min—minimum variety of days allowed earlier than the password may also be modified.

  • max—optimum number of days allowed before the password expires.

  • warn—the number of days earlier than expiration that the consumer is warned.

  • inactive—the variety of days of state of being inactive allowed for the account before the account is immediately locked.

  • expire—the date when the user account is deactivated.

  • flag—a container reserved for future use.

  • The shadow file is restricted so that most effective the equipment administrator can study it. here's because an interloper could function a "dictionary assault," the usage of guessable passwords in an try to assess the passwords for one or extra money owed. classes that "crack" account passwords are available for this goal; as a result, the shadow file isn't publicly readable.

    A pattern shadow file feels like this:

    root:Pe0iQfp2LcAig:10528:::::: daemon:NP:6445:::::: bin:NP:6445:::::: sys:NP:6445:::::: adm:nIP3GPx2FIZYQ:11053:::::: lp:NP:6445:::::: uucp:NP:6445:::::: nuucp:NP:6445:::::: hear:*LK*::::::: pete:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:11055:::::: nobody:NP:6445::::::

    note that one of the crucial money owed within the example shadow file have "NP" ("no password") or "*LK*" (locked) in them. These are only two approaches of signifying that the bills are locked towards login. there's nothing truly magic about "NP" or "*LK*"—they are just one way of effectively displaying that these accounts are locked and going to stay that way. You could put other text within the password box to suit your wants; for instance, a helpdesk ticket quantity or a date.

    When a consumer adjustments his or her password, the gadget creates a backup reproduction of the shadow file, referred to as /etc/oshadow. This additionally happens if root adjustments a consumer's password.

    exam Notes

    feel About It . . .

    Why are encrypted passwords present in /etc/shadow and never in /and many others/passwd?

    for many commands (ps, ls, and so forth.) to work properly, /etc/passwd should be world readable. ahead of using /etc/shadow, all clients' encrypted password strings were additionally publicly readable. This gave americans with "password cracking" courses a chance to discover different users' passwords. by relocating the encrypted password strings to /and so on/shadow (which may also be study simplest with the aid of root), the means to entry encrypted passwords is eradicated.

    First, a little bit of background. Older versions of UNIX did not have a shadow file; instead, the encrypted password string become present in the password file, within the 2d box it really is usually stuffed with an "x" in Solaris. Solaris still supports the encrypted password acting in the password file, although this is no longer really useful, for the reason that the password file is publicly readable.

    Older versions of UNIX with out a shadow file additionally had no password-getting old capability.

    The network tips system (NIS) subsystem turned into designed around the old shadow-much less architecture; this explains why NIS has no shadow map, nor does it guide password ageing.

    The neighborhood File

    The group file carries a listing of the entire groups on the device, together with each and every group's numeric groupid and an inventory of each of the usernames which are secondary members of each and every community. The place of the group file is /and so on/community. The layout of the neighborhood file is:

    groupname:password:gid:person-checklist

    These fields are:

  • groupname—this is the name of the neighborhood.

  • password—this is an not obligatory password for the community.

  • gid—the interesting numerical identity assigned to the community. The optimum value for GID is 2147483647, but administrators are advised to make use of values less than 60,000 to make certain compatibility with all of the tools which are used to control money owed or reveal tips that comprises neighborhood names.

  • user-list—a comma-separated record of users allowed in the group. These businesses are clients' secondary community IDs.

  • A pattern group file follows.

    root::0:root other::1: bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys::three:root,bin,sys,adm adm::four:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root tty::7:root,tty,adm lp::eight:root,lp,adm nuucp::9:root,nuucp team of workers:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:10:pete daemon::12:root,daemon sysadmin::14: no one::60001: noaccess::60002: nogroup::65534:

    be aware the password field in the community "team of workers." groups can be password included through inserting a password string into the password box. observe, though, that this is a very guide manner; there are no equipment supplied to place the group password in for you.

    trace: that you may take a password string from the shadow file and use the vi editor to splice it into the community file. The group password will be the equal as the account password from the shadow entry the place you took the password string.

    When a group is password protected, any one who is not a member of the neighborhood could be challenged for the neighborhood's password when they've entered the newgrp command.

    simple and Secondary Groupids

    each and every consumer account has one fundamental groupid—here is the community defined in the password file. When a person logs on, here is his or her associated groupid.

    each and every consumer account also has zero or more secondary groupids. A person's secondary corporations are those community entries that include the username of their lists of contributors.

    There are some effective obstacles of groupids. as an instance, each user account may also be in no greater than sixteen organizations, and a line in the neighborhood file can't exceed 512 characters (together with the newline persona).

    What happens if you should add so many individuals to a gaggle that you just exceed the 512-personality entry limit? You simply create a different replica community entry—identical identify and community quantity—and list the extra individuals there.

    The primary and secondary groupids at once affect file gadget entry permissions, which is explored thoroughly in Chapter 10.

    examination Notes

    consider About It . . .

    What often is the effect if a username have been brought to a gaggle file entry when that group was the consumer's primary neighborhood?

    The additional entry would have no impact, considering the person is already configured for the fundamental neighborhood membership in the /and so on/passwd file.

    the root Account

    the foundation account has particular privileges on a equipment: Root is permitted to study and write every file on a system, in spite of the file's ownership and permission settings. system directors log in with the root account that allows you to operate administrative initiatives.

    the root account gets its power and privilege from the cost of its user number: Root is person quantity zero, described in the password file.

    examination Notes

    think About It . . .

    What could be the consequences of changing a normal consumer's person quantity to zero? What potential could there be of inserting root's entry at the conclusion of the passwd file (in its place of the starting)?

    altering a regular person's consumer number to zero gives the consumer root privileges.

    One skills of inserting root on the conclusion of the password file is that if an interloper is in a position to adjust the password file to give another user root privilege (see the first question here), then output from commands equivalent to ls and ps would exhibit that different person because the owner of root strategies and data.


    Buhari swears in 8 perm secs with can charge to clear up system’s rot | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Juliana Taiwo-Obalonye, Abuja

    President Muhammadu Buhari on Wednesday stated, past administrations abused the federal civil service and undermined provider beginning to the individuals.

    He cited this at the swearing in of eight everlasting secretaries from eight states the place vacancies existed.

    in response to him, past administrations “abused, undermined and destroyed the device of exams and balances inside the civil service that turned into intended to give protection to and maintain the activity of our residents.”

    The president delivered that it turned into this systemic abuse of energy that “significantly enriched just a few privileged individuals while on the identical time making the vast majority of our fellow citizens poorer and underserved.

    “in consequence, many Nigerians misplaced self belief in the govt and its means to carry the required information and service to our individuals.”

    President Buhari reiterated that his administration had considering he came into office in can also 2015, delivered on its three cardinal programmes: protection, inclusive and diverse economic building and battle towards corruption and abuse of vigour.

    He expressed delight that in under 4 years, “we've made growth on all fronts working very collaboratively with the civil carrier.”

    Buhari charged the new appointees to key “into the administration’s programmes aimed at reforming Nigeria and restoring the self assurance of Nigerians in executive and the civil provider.

    “To enable you to achieve this, we approved the Federal Civil provider strategy and Implementation Plan 2017 to 2020. This plan will make sure that the civil provider is sufficiently manned and fitted to function successfully because it implements govt policies for inclusive boom and development.

    “When thoroughly carried out, we would have efficaciously transformed the civil service into an efficient, productive, incorruptible and citizen-centreded machinery of govt.

    “therefore, l wish to take this chance to solicit your assist and cooperation as we enforce all of the programmes of executive in a influence-oriented method on the way to go away an indelible legacy.

    “In doing this, you need to all remain above board and eschew partisanship your selections and actions. You ought to strive to achieve excellence continually. Your motto may still be civility and serviceability.”

    President Buhari certain the entire civil provider and the broader public provider of the commitment of his administration to its welfare and skill construction consistently.

    He congratulated the newly-sworn in everlasting secretaries, announcing “here's an outstanding fulfillment for which you should be proud. best a tiny percent of Nigerians make it to this stage. i'm sure that your journey to attain this apex position within the federal civil provider has been full of challenges and sacrifices.

    “nowadays you and your households will have a good time the reward of the a long time of provider that you've put in.

    “As you have fun this miraculous achievement, I additionally are looking to remind you that the oath you simply took and the position you currently dangle come with loads of duties.

    “Now more than ever earlier than, our nation needs a extremely vibrant, skilled and selfless civil service in an effort to support our country overcome its urgent problems.

    “As politicians, we increase policies and provide strategic course for the nation. despite the fact, the task of imposing these guidelines and methods rests within the arms of the civil carrier beneath the ready advice of the permanent secretaries.”

    The everlasting secretaries had been sworn in presently earlier than the graduation of the Federal govt Council (FEC) meeting.

    here's the 2d FEC meeting for the reason that the yr started to be presided over by way of President Buhari, the primary assembly held on January 9, where the institution of four new deepest universities became accredited.

    The permanent secretaries took their oaths of office in two batches.

    the new permanent secretaries are Abel, Olumuyiwa Enitan (Osun State), Dr. Mohammed Dikwa (Borno), Dr. Ajani Magdalene N. Olor (Delta) and Festus Yusuf Narai Daudu (Nasarawa). Others are Mbaeri, Maurice Nnamdi (Imo), Dr. Bakari Wadinga (Adamawa), Babatunde Lawal (Lagos), and Umakhihe Ernest Afolabi (Edo).


    sun certified Solaris Administrator: Job data & requirements | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    licensed Solaris administrators are specialized techniques administrators that preserve laptop programs and networks in keeping with Solaris expertise. massive organizations, non-earnings organizations and governmental businesses, among others, are ordinary employers of certified Solaris administrators. day-to-day responsibilities include presenting operational guide, conducting preventative upkeep, performing server optimization and making scheduled server backups.

    schooling Bachelor's degree in community or methods administration always required Job competencies communique, difficulty fixing, evaluation, work experienceMedian earnings (2016)* $eighty two,548 for sun Solaris equipment directors Job growth (2014-2024)** eight% for community and computer programs directors

    supply: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor information

    Required education

    certified Solaris directors continually have a bachelor's degree in community or programs administration. Core coursework usually covers issues in networking infrastructure, protocols and safety. students additionally learn the way to work with UNIX server and windows working programs. Prior journey as a community technician or support desk worker can be primarily helpful. Certification courses and materials can be found during the Oracle business enterprise or permitted practicing centers; candidates get hold of their credentials after passing an examination.

    talents Required

    systems directors in common may still have strong analytical, communication and problem-solving competencies. a radical figuring out of the underlying technologies and ideas of Solaris working programs and know-how is elementary, as smartly as the capacity to deal with multiplie projects and responsibilities.

    Employment and salary Outlook

    The U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics (BLS) stated that employment of network and computer methods directors, including certified Solaris administrators, will develop with the aid of an average cost of eight% nationwide between 2014 to 2024. according to the BLS, the median annual salary for network and laptop techniques administrators became $seventy seven,810 in may also 2015. in line with statistics from PayScale.com, the median income for a sun Solaris techniques administrator changed into $82,548 in January 2016.


    While it is very hard task to choose reliable certification questions / answers resources with respect to review, reputation and validity because people get ripoff due to choosing wrong service. Killexams.com make it sure to serve its clients best to its resources with respect to exam dumps update and validity. Most of other's ripoff report complaint clients come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams happily and easily. We never compromise on our review, reputation and quality because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams client confidence is important to us. Specially we take care of killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com ripoff report complaint, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. If you see any false report posted by our competitors with the name killexams ripoff report complaint internet, killexams.com ripoff report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com complaint or something like this, just keep in mind that there are always bad people damaging reputation of good services due to their benefits. There are thousands of satisfied customers that pass their exams using killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams practice questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, our sample questions and sample brain dumps, our exam simulator and you will definitely know that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.

    [OPTIONAL-CONTENTS-2]


    ISEE brain dumps | FM0-301 questions answers | 00M-241 practice test | 1Z1-456 cheat sheets | 310-091 sample test | 000-744 test prep | MSC-241 test prep | 090-078 exam prep | 4A0-109 mock exam | 310-092 brain dumps | HP2-E15 practice exam | 000-123 questions and answers | 150-230 study guide | 190-735 practice questions | 9A0-351 bootcamp | DSDPS-200 exam prep | F50-533 study guide | CFEX cram | 000-202 VCE | UM0-200 study guide |


    Look at these 310-012 real question and answers
    killexams.com is a definitive arrangement hotspot for passing the SUN 310-012 exam. We have painstakingly agreed and gathered real exam questions, which are refreshed with indistinguishable recurrence from real exam is refreshed, and checked on by industry specialists. Colossal Discount Coupon and Promo codes are offered for awesome discount.

    The quality way to get success in the SUN 310-012 exam is which you should get dependable braindumps. We guarantee that killexams.com is the most direct pathway towards SUN Solaris 8 System Administration II exam. You may be effective with full fact. You can see loose questions at killexams.com earlier than you purchase the 310-012 exam objects. Our brain dumps are in one of a kind choice the same as the actual exam design. The questions and answers made via the certified professionals. They come up with the revel in of taking the actual exam. A hundred% guarantee to pass the 310-012 real exam. killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as beneath;
    WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for all exams on internet site
    PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
    DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $ninety nine
    DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders
    Click http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/310-012

    Quality and Value for the 310-012 Exam: killexams.com Practice Exams for SUN 310-012 are composed to the plain best necessities of specialized precision, utilizing just guaranteed issue tally experts and distributed creators for improvement.

    100% Guarantee to Pass Your 310-012 Exam: If you don't pass the SUN 310-012 exam the utilization of our killexams.com experimenting with engine, we will give you a FULL REFUND of your purchasing charge.

    Downloadable, Interactive 310-012 Testing engines: Our SUN 310-012 Preparation Material presents you all that you will need to take SUN 310-012 exam. Points of interest are investigated and created by utilizing SUN Certification Experts who're continually the use of industry delight in to give extraordinary, and legitimate.

    - Comprehensive questions and answers about 310-012 exam - 310-012 exam questions joined by displays - Verified Answers by Experts and very nearly 100% right - 310-012 exam questions updated on general premise - 310-012 exam planning is in various decision questions (MCQs). - Tested by different circumstances previously distributing - Try free 310-012 exam demo before you choose to get it in killexams.com

    killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
    WC2017: 60% Discount Coupon for all exams on website
    PROF17: 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
    DEAL17: 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
    DECSPECIAL: 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders


    Snap http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/310-012


    Killexams A00-202 practice test | Killexams 1Z0-346 bootcamp | Killexams 000-572 real questions | Killexams C5050-284 practice test | Killexams C4090-959 test prep | Killexams 9A0-803 braindumps | Killexams 000-484 real questions | Killexams HP0-553 free pdf download | Killexams C2170-011 exam prep | Killexams 9L0-409 braindumps | Killexams 650-367 dumps questions | Killexams 700-501 VCE | Killexams HP0-606 pdf download | Killexams 000-m240 study guide | Killexams P8060-028 questions and answers | Killexams 000-057 questions and answers | Killexams HP0-517 brain dumps | Killexams C2020-700 Practice test | Killexams 70-638 dump | Killexams 200-601 test prep |


    [OPTIONAL-CONTENTS-5]

    View Complete list of Killexams.com Brain dumps


    Killexams HPE0-J77 Practice test | Killexams HP2-Z08 practice questions | Killexams 000-815 free pdf | Killexams C90-01A cheat sheets | Killexams 190-840 study guide | Killexams NE-BC real questions | Killexams MSC-321 braindumps | Killexams 190-621 pdf download | Killexams 000-375 questions and answers | Killexams HPE2-T34 free pdf | Killexams HH0-230 test prep | Killexams 000-341 brain dumps | Killexams 1D0-441 cram | Killexams HP2-K36 free pdf | Killexams ACNP test prep | Killexams CAT-241 free pdf download | Killexams 7141X test questions | Killexams C2090-312 dump | Killexams 310-044 practice questions | Killexams HPE0-J79 questions and answers |


    Solaris 8 System Administration II

    Pass 4 sure 310-012 dumps | Killexams.com 310-012 real questions | [HOSTED-SITE]

    Disk Slices | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    Disks are divided into regions called “disk slices” or “disk partitions.” A slice is composed of a single range of contiguous blocks. It is a physical subset of the disk (except for slice 2, which represents the entire disk). A UFS or the swap area is built within these disk slices. The boundaries of a disk slice are defined when a disk is partitioned using the format utility, and the slice information for a particular disk can be viewed by using the prtvtoc command. Each disk slice appears to the OS (and to the system administrator) as though it were a separate disk drive.

    Disk slicing differs between the SPARC and x86 platforms. On the SPARC platform, the entire disk is devoted to the OS; the disk can be divided into 8 slices, numbered 0 to 7. On the x86 platform, the disk is divided into fdisk partitions using the fdisk command. The fdisk partition is divided into 10 slices, numbered 0 to 9.

    A physical disk consists of a stack of circular platters. Data is stored on these platters in a cylindrical pattern called “cylinders” as illustrated in Figure 4-1. Cylinders can be grouped and isolated from one another. A group of cylinders is referred to as a slice. A slice is defined with start and end points, starting from the outside of the platters to the center of the stack of platters, which is called the “spindle.”

    For example, a 73GB SCSI disk has 14,087 cylinders, numbered 0 to 14,086. Cylinder 0 is on the outside edge of the platters, and cylinder 14,086 is the closest to the spindle. Disk slices are defined by an offset and a size in cylinders. The offset is the distance from cylinder 0. To define a slice, the administrator provides a starting cylinder and an ending cylinder. A slice spanning from cylinder 0 to 14,086 would use the entire disk and is typical of the slicing scheme used on a ZFS boot disk.

    When setting up slices, remember these rules:

  • Each disk slice holds only one file system.
  • No file system can span multiple slices without the use of a volume manager such as ZFS or SVM.
  • After a file system is created, its size cannot be increased or decreased without repartitioning and possibly destroying the partition directly before or after it.
  • Slices cannot span multiple disks; however, multiple swap slices on separate disks are allowed.
  • When we discuss ZFS in Chapter 5, you’ll learn how to get around some of these limitations in file systems.

    Displaying Disk Configuration Information

    As described earlier, disk configuration information is stored in the disk label. If you know the disk and slice number, you can display information for a disk by using the print volume table of contents (prtvtoc) command. You can specify the volume by specifying any slice defined on the disk (for example, /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s2 or /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s*). Regardless of which slice you specify, all slices defined on the disk will be displayed. If you know the target number of the disk but do not know how it is divided into slices, you can show information for the entire disk by specifying either slice 2 or s*. The following steps show how you can examine information stored on a disk’s label by using the prtvtoc command.

  • Become the superuser.
  • Type the following text and press Enter.

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    * /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 424 sectors/track * 24 tracks/cylinder * 10176 sectors/cylinder * 14089 cylinders * 14087 accessible cylinders * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * Unallocated space: * First Sector Last * Sector Count Sector * 0 10176 10175 * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector Count Sector Mount Directory 0 2 00 10176 143339136 143349311 2 5 01 0 143349312 143349311
  • The disk described is a SAS disk, target 0 with an SMI VTOC label. The prtvtoc command shows the number of cylinders and heads, as well as how the disk’s slices are arranged.

    The following is an example of running the prtvtoc command on a SCSI disk with an EFI label:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1<cr> * /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 8385121 sectors * 8385054 accessible sectors * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector Count Sector Mount Directory 0 2 01 34 41006 41039 1 2 00 41040 8327663 8368702 /mnt 8 11 00 8368703 16384 8385086 Using the format Utility to Create Slices: SPARC

    Before you can create a file system on a disk, the disk must be formatted, and you must divide it into slices using the format utility. Formatting involves two separate processes:

  • Writing format information to the disk
  • Completing a surface analysis, which compiles an up-to-date list of disk defects
  • When a disk is formatted, header and trailer information is superimposed on the disk. When the format utility runs a surface analysis, the controller scans the disk for defects. It should be noted that defects and formatting information reduce the total disk space available for data. This is why a new disk usually holds only 90% to 95% of its capacity after formatting. This percentage varies according to disk geometry and decreases as the disk ages and develops more defects.

    The need to perform a surface analysis on a disk drive has dropped as more manufacturers ship their disk drives formatted and partitioned. You should not need to perform a surface analysis within the format utility when adding a disk drive to an existing system unless you think disk defects are causing problems. The primary reason that you would use format is if you want to view or change the partitioning scheme on a disk.

    The format utility searches your system for all attached disk drives and reports the following information about the disk drives it finds:

  • Target location
  • Disk geometry
  • Whether the disk is formatted
  • Whether the disk has mounted partitions
  • In addition, the format utility is used in disk repair operations to do the following:

  • Retrieve disk labels
  • Repair defective sectors
  • Format and analyze disks
  • Partition disks
  • Label disks (i.e., write the disk name and configuration information to the disk for future retrieval)
  • The installation program partitions and labels disk drives as part of installing the Oracle Solaris release. However, you might need to use the format utility when doing the following:

  • Displaying slice information
  • Dividing a disk into slices
  • Formatting a disk drive when you think disk defects are causing problems
  • Repairing a disk drive
  • Changing a disk label from EFI to SMI or vice versa
  • The following example uses the format utility to create disk slices on a disk.

  • Become the superuser
  • Type “code.”

    The system responds with the following:

    Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c0t0d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@0,0 1. c0t1d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@1,0
  • Specify the disk (enter its number).

    The system responds with the format main menu:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - describe the current disk format - format and analyze the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk analyze - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and display labels save - save new disk/partition definitions inquiry - show vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit

    Table 4-4 describes the format main menu items.

    Table 4-4 Format Main Menu Item Descriptions

    Menu Item

    Description

    disk

    Lists all of the system’s drives. Also lets you choose the disk you want to use in subsequent operations. This disk is referred to as the current disk.

    type

    Identifies the manufacturer and model of the current disk. Also displays a list of known drive types. Choose the Auto configure option for all SCSI-2 disk drives.

    partition

    Creates and modifies slices.

    current

    Describes the current disk (that is, device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and physical device name).

    format

    Formats the current disk using one of these sources of information in this order:

    Information that is found in the format.dat file.

    Information from the automatic configuration process.

    Information that you type at the prompt if no format.dat entry exists.

    This command does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks are preformatted by the manufacturer.

    fdisk

    x86 platform only: Runs the fdisk program to create an Oracle Solaris fdisk partition.

    repair

    Used to repair a specific block on the current disk.

    label

    Writes a new label to the current disk. This is not the same as labeling the disk with volname.

    analyze

    Runs read, write, and compare tests.

    defect

    Retrieves and displays defect lists. This feature does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks manage defects automatically.

    backup

    Searches for backup labels if the VTOC becomes corrupted or gets deleted.

    verify

    Displays information about the current disk such as device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and partition table.

    save

    Saves new disk and partition information.

    inquiry

    SCSI disks only: Displays the vendor, product name, and revision level of the current drive. This will also display the disk’s current firmware.

    volname

    Labels the disk with a new eight-character volume name that you specify. This is not the same as writing the partition table to disk using label.

    quit

    Exits the format menu. Pressing Ctrl+D will also exit the format utility from the main menu or from any submenu.

  • Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.

    format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table name - name the current table print - display the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
  • Type “print” to display the current partition map.

    partition> print<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 24620 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1418 - 9924 11.72GB (8507/0/0) 24576723 1 var wm 9925 - 13469 4.88GB (3545/0/0) 10241505 2 backup wm 0 - 24619 33.92GB (24620/0/0) 71127180 3 swap wu 0 - 1417 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 4 unassigned wm 13470 - 14887 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 5 unassigned wm 14888 - 16112 1.69GB (1225/0/0) 3539025 6 unassigned wm 16113 - 16821 1000.15MB (709/0/0) 2048301 7 home wm 16822 - 23910 9.77GB (7089/0/0) 20480121

    The columns displayed with the partition table are

  • Part: The slice number (0–7).
  • Tag: This is an optional value that indicates how the slice is being used. The value can be any of the following names that best fits the function of the file system you are creating:

    unassigned, boot, root, swap, usr, backup, stand, var, home, alternates, reserved, system, BIOS_boot

  • Flag: Values in this column can be

  • wm The disk slice is writable and mountable.
  • wu The disk slice is writable and unmountable (such as a swap slice).
  • rm The disk slice is read-only and mountable.
  • ru The disk slice is read-only and unmountable.
  • Cylinders: The starting and ending cylinder number for the disk slice.
  • Size: The slice size specified as

  • mb megabytes
  • gb gigabytes
  • b blocks
  • c cylinders
  • b Blocks
  • e Ending cylinder
  • You can use the name and save commands in the partition menu to name and save a newly created partition table to a file that can be referenced by name later, when you want to use this same partition scheme on another disk. When issuing the name command, you’ll provide a unique name for this partition scheme and then issue the save command to save the information to the ./format.dat file. Normally this file is located in the /etc directory, so provide the full pathname for /etc/format.dat to update the master file.

  • After you partition the disk, you must label it by typing label at the partition prompt:

    partition> label<cr>

    You are asked for confirmation on labeling the disk as follows:

    Ready to label disk, continue? y<cr>

    Enter “Y” to continue.

  • After labeling the disk, type “quit” to exit the partition menu or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility:

    partition> quit<cr>
  • Type “quit” again to exit the format utility:

    format> quit<cr>
  • It’s important to point out a few undesirable things that can happen when defining disk partitions with the format utility if you’re not careful. First, be careful not to waste disk space. Wasted disk space can occur when you decrease the size of one slice and do not adjust the starting cylinder number of the adjoining disk slice.

    Second, don’t overlap disk slices. Overlapping occurs when one or more cylinders are allocated to more than one disk slice. For example, increasing the size of one slice without decreasing the size of the adjoining slice will create overlapping partitions. The format utility will not warn you of wasted disk space or overlapping partitions.

    The main reason a system administrator uses the format utility is to divide a disk into disk slices. In Oracle Solaris 11 11/11, for a bootable ZFS root pool, the disks in the pool must contain slices and must be labeled with an SMI label. The simplest configuration would be to put the entire disk capacity in slice 0 and use that slice for the root pool. Bootable ZFS root pools are discussed further in Chapter 5.

    I’ll describe how to use the SMI label for SPARC-based systems. For example, on a SPARC-based system with a 72GB disk, you would need to have 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. Similarly, on an x86-based system with a 72GB disk, you would also need to allow 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. A small amount of boot information is contained in slice 8. Slice 8 requires no administration and cannot be changed.

    Follow these steps to partition a disk (c2t0d0) to be used as a ZFS boot disk (bootable ZFS root pool) on a SPARC-based system. If the disk has an EFI label, and the firmware has not been upgraded, you must first convert it to an SMI label.

    Use the prtvtoc command to verify the disk label as follows:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>

    The system displays

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1 - 14086 68.35GB (14086/0/0) 143339136 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    Notice that slice 2 is labeled “backup” and the slices are numbered 0-7. This is an SMI label.

    The following shows the output that is displayed for a disk with an EFI label:

    Part Tag Flag First Sector Size Last Sector 0 usr wm 34 68.36GB 143358320 1 unassigned wm 0 0 0 2 unassigned wm 0 0 0 3 unassigned wm 0 0 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 0 8 reserved wm 143358321 8.00MB 143374704

    Notice there is a slice 8 and slice 2 is NOT labeled “backup.” This is an EFI label and would need to be changed. Use the following steps to change the label from an EFI label to an SMI label:

  • As root, use the format -e command and select the disk to label as follows:

    # format –e<cr>

    The system displays a list of disks. In the example, I selected disk 1 (c2t1d0):

    Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr> selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
  • The main menu is displayed. Type “label” to label the disk:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - describe the current disk format - format and analyze the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk analyze - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and display labels inquiry - show disk ID scsi - independent SCSI mode selects cache - enable, disable or query SCSI disk cache volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit format> label<cr>
  • Select option 1 to label the disk with an SMI label and press Enter when prompted for autoconfiguration:

    [0] SMI Label [1] EFI Label Specify Label type[1]: 0<cr> Auto configuration via format.dat[no]?<cr> Auto configuration via generic SCSI-2[no]?<cr> format>
  • Exit the format utility.

    format> quit<cr>
  • To slice the disk so that it can be used as a ZFS boot disk, follow these steps:

  • As root, enter the format utility:

    # format<cr> Searching for disks ... done

    Select the disk that is going to be sliced. In the example, I will select disk 1 (c2t1d0):

    AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr>

    The system responds with

    selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
  • Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.

    format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table name - name the current table print - display the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
  • Type “print” to display the current partition map.

    partition> print<cr>

    The system responds with the following:

    partition> print<cr> Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 25 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 1 swap wu 26 - 51 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 52 - 14086 68.10GB (14035/0/0) 142820160 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
  • Enter “modify” to change the partition table:

    partition> modify<cr>
  • Select option 1 for “All Free Hog” when prompted:

    Select partitioning base: 0. Current partition table (original) 1. All Free Hog Choose base (enter number) [0]? 1<cr> Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
  • Type “yes” when asked whether to continue:

    Do you wish to continue creating a new partition table based on above table[yes]? yes<cr>

    Type “0” for the Free Hog partition:

    Free Hog partition[6]? 0<cr>
  • The system will prompt you to enter a size for each partition. Press Enter when prompted as follows, and each slice will be 0MB:

    Enter size of partition '1' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '3' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '4' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '5' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '6' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '7' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr>

    Because all of the slices have been set to “0,” the free hog space is the entire disk. This space will be allocated to slice 0 as specified in step 6.

  • When prompted to make this the current partition table, press Enter to use the default value “yes”:

    Okay to make this the current partition table[yes]?<cr>
  • When prompted for a table name, enter “rootdisk.” This name is not significant and can be any name.

    Enter table name (remember quotes): rootdisk<cr>

    Enter “pr” to display the new partition table:

    partition> pr<cr> Current partition table (unnamed): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>

    Notice that slice 0 is the entire disk.

  • Enter “quit” or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility.

    partition> quit<cr>
  • Using the format Utility to Create Slices: x86

    As described earlier in this chapter, Oracle Solaris on the x86 platform treats disk drives slightly differently than on the SPARC-based systems. Disks on the x86 platform must have an fdisk partition table. The x86-based systems use the fdisk partition table to identify parts of the disk reserved for different OSs and to identify the partition that the system will boot from. This boot partition is referred to as the “active disk” partition. You can assign one fdisk partition on a disk to be used for Oracle Solaris.

    On an x86-based system, once a disk drive has been physically installed and verified as working, you’ll use the format command to slice the disk, but first an fdisk partition must be created on the new drive. You can create this fdisk partition using the fdisk command from the command line or through the format utility. The following steps describe how to create a fixed disk partition table on a disk using the format utility:

  • As root, type “format” to get into the format utility.

    # format<cr>

    The following menu appears:

    AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c1t0d0 <FUJITSU-M1606S-512-6234 cyl 3455 alt 2 hd 6 sec 102> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@0,0 1. c1t1d0 <IBM-DFHSS1W!e-4141 cyl 4071 alt 2 hd 4 sec 135> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@1,0 2. c1t2d0 <DEFAULT cyl 2928 alt 2 hd 6 sec 120> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@2,0 Specify disk (enter its number):
  • Enter the number corresponding to the new drive and the following menu will be displayed:

    FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - describe the current disk format - format and analyze the disk fdisk - run the fdisk program repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk analyze - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and display labels save - save new disk/partition definitions inquiry - show vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name5 quit format>
  • Select the fdisk option and the following menu appears:

    The recommended default partitioning for your disk is: a 100% "SOLARIS System" partition. To select this, please type "y". To partition your disk differently, type "n" and the "fdisk" program will let you select other partitions.
  • If you wish to use the entire drive for Oracle Solaris, enter “Y.” This will return you to the format menu. If “N” is entered, the fdisk menu will be displayed.

    Total disk size is 4073 cylinders Cylinder size is 540 (512 byte) blocks Cylinders Partition Status Type Start End Length ========= ====== ======== ===== === ====== === THERE ARE NO PARTITIONS CURRENTLY DEFINED SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: 1. Create a partition 2. Change Active (Boot from) partition 3. Delete a partition 4. Exit (Update disk configuration and exit) 5. Cancel (Exit without updating disk configuration) Enter Selection:
  • Choose 1 to create an fdisk partition. This is not the same as a slice.
  • After creating the partition, choose 4 to exit and save. The format menu will return.
  • Choose partition and follow the procedure for formatting a disk on page 272, beginning at step 4.
  • Disks on x86-based systems can be divided into 10 slices labeled slice 0 through slice 9. On Oracle Solaris 11/11, slices 0 through 7 are used for the same purposes as disk slices found on SPARC-based systems. Slice 2 represents all of the space within the fdisk partition. As stated earlier, slices 8 and 9 are used for purposes specific to x86-based hardware. You cannot modify slices 8 and 9 using the format utility. Beginning with Oracle Solaris 11.1, the boot disk on an x86-based system can contain an EFI label, and the partition scheme is slightly different than the SPARC system. Slice 0 is reserved for the BIOS_boot information. I’ll describe this more in the next chapter.

    Here’s an example of the partition table on an IDE or SATA disk on an x86-based system running Oracle Solaris 11/11, as displayed by the format utility:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 alternates wm 1 - 2 15.69MB (2/0/0) 32130

    In the previous example, notice that slice 9 is defined and tagged as the alternates slice.

    The next example shows the partition table for a SCSI disk attached to an x86-based system. Notice that partition 8 is assigned, but slice 9 is not used:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    One more item of note: On standard UFSs, don’t change the size of disk slices that are currently in use. When a disk with existing slices is repartitioned and relabeled, any existing data will be lost. Before repartitioning a disk, first copy all of the data to tape or to another disk.

    You can also create the fixed disk partition table on an x86-based system disk from the command line using a single command as follows:

    # fdisk –B c1t0d0<cr>

    The –B option creates a single fixed disk partition that spans the entire disk. The following 36GB disk was formatted using the fdisk –B command:

    Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 4695 35.97GB (4696/0/0) 75441240 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0

    The fdisk –B command can also be used to convert a disk label from an EFI to SMI.

    To verify that a disk contains a fixed disk partition table, issue the following command:

    # fdisk -v -W - /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p<cr>

    The system displays the fdisk table for disk c3t0d0:

    * /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p0 default fdisk table * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 63 sectors/track * 255 tracks/cylinder * 2088 cylinders * * systid: * 1: DOSOS12 * 2: PCIXOS * 4: DOSOS16 * 5: EXTDOS * 6: DOSBIG * 7: FDISK_IFS * 8: FDISK_AIXBOOT * 9: FDISK_AIXDATA * 10: FDISK_0S2BOOT * 11: FDISK_WINDOWS * 12: FDISK_EXT_WIN * 14: FDISK_FAT95 * 15: FDISK_EXTLBA * 18: DIAGPART * 65: FDISK_LINUX * 82: FDISK_CPM * 86: DOSDATA * 98: OTHEROS * 99: UNIXOS * 100: FDISK_NOVELL2 * 101: FDISK_NOVELL3 * 119: FDISK_QNX4 * 120: FDISK_QNX42 * 121: FDISK_QNX43 * 130: SUNIXOS * 131: FDISK_LINUXNAT * 134: FDISK_NTFSVOL1 * 135: FDISK_NTFSVOL2 * 165: FDISK_BSD * 167: FDISK_NEXTSTEP * 183: FDISK_BSDIFS * 184: FDISK_BSDISWAP * 190: X86BOOT * 191: SUNIXOS2 * 238: EFI_PMBR * 239: EFI_FS * Id Act Bhead Bsect Bcyl Ehead Esect Ecyl Rsect Numsect 191 128 0 1 1 254 63 1023 16065 33527655 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

    When there are multiple disks of the same type (manufacturer, model, size, and geometry) to be sliced, you can save time by copying the label from a source disk over to a target disk without going through all of the steps using the format utility. Use the prtvtoc command to get the partition table from the source disk (c0t0d0) and write the table to the target disk (c0t1d0) using the fmthard command as follows:

    # prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 | fmthard –s - /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2<cr>

    Richard Gardner, who helped mold U.S. foreign policy as professor and ambassador, dies at 91 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Richard N. Gardner, who helped mold U.S. foreign policy and generations of policymakers as a Columbia Law School professor for nearly six decades and as a U.S. ambassador to Italy and Spain, died Feb. 16 at his home in New York City. He was 91.

    The cause was congestive heart failure, said his daughter, Nina Gardner.

    Gardner spent more than half a century moving between academia and government, training the legal and economic expertise that he gained as a Yale law student and Rhodes scholar on some of the most pressing global concerns of the Cold War and its aftermath.

    At Columbia, he was best known for his seminar "Legal Aspects of U.S. Foreign Economic Policy," which he taught from 1955 until his retirement in 2012. Enrollment was famously competitive, and Gardner invited those admitted to complete notecards with their contact information and career aspirations.

    He called upon those notecards years later to recommend his former students for influential posts in government and beyond, building what the Chronicle of Higher Education once described as "a global network of lawyers, diplomats, business leaders and policy makers."

    Gardner held a series of his own influential government posts beginning in the 1960s, when he served under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson as deputy assistant secretary of state for international organization affairs. He later served as ambassador to Italy from 1977 to 1981, under President Jimmy Carter, and as ambassador to Spain from 1993 to 1997, under President Bill Clinton.

    He was a forceful proponent of international institutions including the United Nations and their role in addressing such problems as environmental degradation - an area where he was credited with sounding a prescient alarm.

    "We are finally beginning to recognize that how a nation deals with its national environment is no longer its own and nobody else's business," he wrote in a New York Times commentary in 1970. "We are beginning to comprehend the unity of the world's ecological system, which means that all nations may be affected by how any one of them treats its air, water and land."

    He faced perhaps his most challenging government assignment as ambassador to Italy, at a time when the Communist Party seemed ascendant and when the country was in the throes of the violence sponsored by the leftist Red Brigades.

    In the past, the United States had sought to influence Italian elections through CIA activity, according to journalist Tim Weiner's book "Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA." Gardner said that as ambassador he vowed to honor Carter's inaugural promise that "we will not behave in foreign places so as to violate our rules and standards here at home."

    "I took that very seriously," Gardner recalled in remarks before the Council on Foreign Relations in 2005. "I said, we are going to combat the communists, but using public diplomacy. . . . There are going to be no dirty tricks."

    He invited to the U.S. Embassy Italian cultural figures including filmmaker Federico Fellini and writers Leonardo Sciascia and Alberto Moravia, who he said had been previously omitted from official guest lists because of their leftists politics. The Times described him as the "first American ambassador to Italy to make formal approaches to the Communist Party."

    Writing in the Times in 1983, he recalled engaging in "much table pounding in Washington" to obtain funds to train Italian teachers of English and English-speaking teachers of Italian.

    He also sought to increase the number of American texts available to Italian readers, noting ruefully that when he requested an Italian translation of the Federalist Papers, he learned they had been out of print in Italian for years. The works of Marx , Lenin and Stalin, however, were widely available.

    He was credited with helping persuade Italy to become the first European country to accept U.S. cruise missiles on its land, an important achievement at the time. But "we seem to have forgotten the obvious truth that you don't defend national security with arms alone," he wrote in the Times commentary. "The Soviet SS-20 missile is a threat to European security, but just as great a threat is the slow and steady erosion of common values and interests that is the foundation of the Atlantic alliance."

    Richard Newton Gardner was born in New York City on July 9, 1927. His father was a lawyer, and his mother was a homemaker.

    After stateside Army service during World War II, Gardner received a bachelor's degree in economics from Harvard University in 1948. He was a 1951 graduate of Yale Law School and received a PhD in economics from the University of Oxford in 1954.

    His books included "Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy: The Origins and the Prospects of Our International Economic Order" (1956), "In Pursuit of World Order: U.S. Foreign Policy and International Organizations" (1964), and a memoir, "Mission Italy: On the Front Lines of the Cold War" (2005).

    Gardner advised two Democratic presidential candidates, Clinton in 1992 and Al Gore in 1998, on foreign policy during their White House campaigns. As ambassador to Spain during the Clinton administration, he sought to defend intellectual property rights for U.S. software makers and to boost sales of U.S. helicopters.

    His wife of 51 years, the former Danielle Luzzatto, died in 2008. Survivors include two children, Nina Gardner of Washington and Anthony Gardner, who served under President Barack Obama as U.S. ambassador to the European Union, of London; and three grandchildren.

    His wife, whose family, like Gardner's, was of Jewish heritage, was born in Italy and fled to the United States after the promulgation of the 1938 anti-Semitic racial laws under fascist dictator Benito Mussolini.

    Gardner credited her as a co-ambassador, especially during their time in Italy. She once came home from the hairdresser and reported that she had heard from the mistress of "Minister X" that the minister was going to resign - "and it was an important minister," Gardner joked before the Council on Foreign Relations.

    He informed his colleagues in the CIA, who did not believe the report, until the minister stepped down that Friday. The following Monday, his colleagues demanded to know where he had gotten his tip. "I took great joy," he recalled, "in saying to the CIA, 'I never disclose sources.' "


    New York’s public housing system is the size of a city. It’s failing children. | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    By Emily A. Benfer

    February 11

    Emily A. Benfer is the director of the Health Justice Advocacy Clinic and a professor at Columbia Law School.

    The New York City Housing Authority, responsible for 176,000 apartments in 2,418 buildings, is by far the biggest public-housing system in the country. Beset by lead-paint hazards, mold, heating failures and chronic mismanagement, NYCHA buildings are also a danger to the authority’s 400,000 residents — the population of a mid-size American city.

    On Jan. 31, New York narrowly avoided a complete federal takeover of NYCHA by agreeing to spend $2.2 billion on a decade-long effort to repair NYCHA’s decrepit buildings and by ceding much management responsibility to a powerful federal monitor. Housing and Urban Development Secretary Ben Carson and Mayor Bill de Blasio (D) announced the agreement at HUD’s Lower Manhattan offices on the deadline date set by a federal judge who last fall had rejected an earlier agreement as inadequate.

    The new agreement is also inadequate. That was made clear Monday with news that interim NYCHA chairman Stanley Brezenoff refused to sign the agreement. The deal unfairly places “all of the financial burden” on the city and not on the federal government, where it belongs, he told the New York Times. The city had announced last week that he was being replaced.

    Last summer, NYCHA estimated that $32 billion would be needed over five years to fix its buildings, which are on average more than 60 years old, according to the New York Times. The city could never afford to spend that much on these essential repairs. Federal funding will be required if the public-health crisis is going to be effectively addressed and HUD is going to fulfill its duty to provide safe and decent housing. HUD provides $2 billion of NYCHA’s $3.2 billion annual operating budget.

    The conditions of public housing in New York City are deplorable. More than 59 percent of NYCHA residents surveyed reported mold in their units, and 52 percent reported leaking roofs, windows or plumbing. More than 800 children under age 6 and living in NYCHA housing tested positive for high levels of lead between 2012 and 2016. The housing authority had ignored lead-paint safety regulations for years.

    The alarming deterioration of New York’s public housing occurred in tandem with steady federal funding cuts to public housing nationwide, reductions that picked up speed under the Trump administration. According to the Wall Street Journal, the administration made an initial cut of at least $35 million for 2017 as part of an expected $150 million total.

    When billions are needed but millions are being cut, the authorization of a federal monitor is the equivalent of nailing a 2-by-4 to a collapsing building.

    NYCHA’s neglect has had staggering consequences for children’s health. Lead poisoning can result in reduced IQ, developmental delays, academic failure, juvenile delinquency, behavioral problems, biological and neurological damage and premature death. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention makes it clear: “There is no known safe level of lead.” A New York state report last year found that 80 percent of NYCHA buildings, where mold is rife, had conditions that could contribute to asthma in children. As the CDC notes, asthma is a leading cause of school absences and reduced daily activities; in 2008 alone, asthma caused 14.2 million missed days of work and 10.5 million missed days of school nationwide, affecting children from low-income families at the highest rates.

    Yet NYCHA does not have the funds necessary to address the more than 245,000 open work orders for repairs, let alone employ enough lead-hazard risk investigators or mold remediation specialists to address these problems.

    Shockingly, the new NYCHA agreement with HUD provides no supplemental federal funding for mold and lead-hazard inspection and remediation. Instead, the agreement mandates the use of “visual assessments” for lead hazards. As The Post reported in a tragic 2017 story about lead hazards in D.C. public housing, one of the “key weaknesses of federal guidelines” mandated by HUD and followed by the District is that inspectors rely on visual inspections for peeling paint and deteriorating conditions “instead of specifically testing for lead or asthma-inducing mold.” In effect, children in federally assisted housing must develop lead poisoning before meaningful inspections occur.

    HUD’s lack of oversight, compliance review and long-term planning is a problem that reaches far beyond NYCHA. June 2018 reports from HUD’s Inspector General and the Government Accountability Office on the conditions of federally assisted housing found wide margins for fraudulent reporting. For example, the East Chicago Housing Authority in Indiana was allowed to falsely self-certify compliance as generations of families were exposed to lead and arsenic while residing in public housing on a Superfund site.

    HUD’s perfunctory approach to its responsibilities, combined with inadequate federal funding, has resulted in squalid environments that threaten the health and livelihoods of public-housing residents. By disinvesting in housing for low-income families, Congress and HUD are thwarting progress, perpetuating racial segregation and increasing the cycle of poverty for future generations. The federal government has an obligation to protect those who qualify for federal assistance. If generations of children are going to thrive, they first must live in homes and communities that government neglect and indifference haven’t made dangerous to their health.



    Direct Download of over 5500 Certification Exams

    3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





    References :


    Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/11972232
    Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12908257
    Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2018/01/just-memorize-these-310-012-questions.html
    Wordpress : https://wp.me/p7SJ6L-2qB
    Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/5jee7q0l3xfcxy3o2n6zwijaencgdp6s






    Back to Main Page

    You really have to study hard. These questions are a big help and worth the price. Test Engine has specific steps which you need to follow in order to install it. But is a nice piece of software.

    Rajesh | INDIA



    I ordered this exam prep. The content is well formatted and pretty clean. I was able to use the PDF and the Test Engine to prepare. Quite helpful.

    Lisa | UNITED STATES



    Great Black Friday deal and good content. I am impressed

    Mike | Anonymous



    fast and easy order. No issues. I can't wait to pass this test!

    teechee | UNITED STATES



    Wouldn't have passed if I had not studied from this dump. Good job guys.

    Mitul | INDIA



    I did get about 80-85% of the questions in my exam. So it is a valid one.

    James | UNITED STATES



    What joy!
    I passed my exam today.

    Zan | UNITED KINGDOM



    Good Content

    Raj | UNITED STATES



    Trying to download the updates. Pretty solid braindumps.

    cpinkney | UNITED STATES



    Excellent!

    elixir | UNITED STATES



    Good, Definitely worth the investment.

    Tom | UNITED STATES



    I just completed the test and got a 96%. missed only 2 questions.

    Sahil | Franfurt



    I thought i should thank you for assisting me to obtain my ITIL qualification. I received the exam on Thursday and i studied the moment i received it. I must say i was very nervous before the exam. Well I wrote and passed. The pass mark was 65% and I scored 92%.
    Thank you so much guys.

    Nahid | Bremen



    I just completed my exam today and wanted to share the great news. Your study guide in combination with self study have helped me to achieve another certification. After the conclusion to this upcoming fall semester I plan to pursue my other goals... I hav

    John | koln



    Great Job. I passed my exam with score of 868. I got 100 questions and could finish the exam within 20 minutes, ofcourse after my two weeks of hard work.

    Anon | Anon



    I took my exam today and passed with a score of 87%. After taking the practise exam with all the 200+ questions included with your material and reading the student manual once I felt that I had no problem passing this exam. Great material!

    JK | Dortmund



    Today, I passed my Exam and I have to say that the your materials for the Exam helped get me into the right frame of mind for taking the exam. The Help button for each question is an invaluable feature. Great job getting this together!

    Munchi | Rotterdam



    I just had to say thank you so much for such a fantastic product ! I just completed my exam in 30 minutes with a score of 95%.

    Angili | Emmen



    I just took my Certification testing for Apple exam and passed it with full score. Your questions covered the essence of the exam material.

    Madu | Nederland




    I truely appreciate your prompt response. It has been nice doing business with you. I have already registered for the exam (taking it this weekend) and it went smooth as you assured. I plan to come back to your site in future for my other certification.

    Priyanka | Ireland



    Thanks a lot for your help. I have successfully completed my exams studying your materials. It was a great help by you.
    "It was an excellent total immersion exams material."

    Peter | Leeds UK





    I just passed the exam with 90%. Thanks for your help.

    Audreena | Norwich




    hello again. First of all i'd like to inform you'll that i passed my oracle 1zo-042 exam with the help of your questions. I owe it all to you'll so thank you. Thank you so much. You really changed my life!

    Viki | Belfast



    Yesterday I cleared Solaris 9 Administration Certification Paper Part 1 ( CX 310-014). Your Cheat-Test paper is really very helpful. My test result was 91%.

    Josef | Dundee



    Hey Guys. I wanna thank you for helping me through providing 310-012 exam and Training Material. It is so good that I will recommend all my friends to use.

    Josh | Cardiff



    I just passed my Exam using your QA product. Thanks!

    Reddy | Glasgow



    Warm greetings and let me thank you so very much for the great stuff you are doing. I am now a 000-207 Certified. I passed all with flying colors.

    Jessica | SD



    I passed the written exam with 920. Thank you very much for your services. It was worth every penny of it.

    Bella | VA



    I just wanted you all to know that you have really changed my life. Recently I passed the CCSA exam and now just passed the CCSE exam. My employer is so delighted with my integrity that I just received a 12% pay increase. This is too good to be true. Thank

    Mike | Victoria



    I was feeling helpless for my exam and then find material at your website and passed with 90. thank you guys.

    Racheal | colima



    I purchased your products, it was great, really helped me pass the exam. thank you

    Lisa | Mexico



    I just bought the exam prep two days before writing my exam. I studied the guide inside out and wrote the exam in under 45 minutes! The most amazing part is that I passed with a score of 1000!! WOW, you are the greatest and I will always use your products.

    Vishal | Lahor



    Tried many websites for my 70-500 Exam Preparation but no vain and finally i tried your study material for my exam and it was impressive and I was able to clear Exam with confidence. thanks you very much!

    Aalia | Deli



    I will, you guys have always been really good whenever i buy stuff from u and need questions answering....keep up the good work
    THANK YOU !

    Jacob | Piaui



    I passed the the NSO-111 with flying colors. Thank your for your help.

    Mark | Para



    You gusy Rock!
    killexams.com provided everything you could want and made things very comfortable.

    Tanisha | Sinop



    Great products!! I passed the CCIE written exam on my first attempt!

    Neesha | India



    I have already given up...but your exam and study packs finally made me pass this CCNA exam!

    Angus | Kansas



    My company needed me to pass the CCIP exams, as we are a Service Provider offering more and more Voice Services. Great exam materials you provide!

    Terah | San Angelo



    I was lucky enough to use killexams.com for my 000-630 Certification Exam Training. The difference is clear. I passed the exam without a problem. Have you done it yet or not?

    Kim | Lubbock



    I am very happy with the performance of your 000-094 QA from you. It is no doubt the best.

    Martin | Calgary



    I just made it in the 000-215 Exam. Your 000-215 QA is outclass. Made it so easy for me to succeed.

    Shila M. | Montana



    I have passed all the 7 Windows 2000 MCSE tests with the help of your great guides. Those questions I met in my tests are very very similar, if not the same, with the ones in your guides. 70-220 and 70-221 are so difficult. I can't imagine how I could pass

    Rosa | Monitoba



    Hi, I passed today!!! I passed both my exams within ONE WEEK!!! THANK YOU VERY MUCH!!!

    Aaron G. | vancouver



    I just passed (310-025) SCJP test yesterday. Your guide is right on the money and almost covers every question word for word. Great work !

    seagal | Edmonton



    I passed my exam today with a score of 964. This was a difficult test but the preparation guide was very good. I would not have passed without the materials. Thank you very much for giving me the opportunity to better my life.

    Illya | Alberta



    Exam syo-101 Exam
    I passed my exam today with no problem whatsoever. I just wanted to say a sincere thank you for the outstanding study guide. You guys are a phenomenal help when it comes to study assistance. Thanks and definitely expect to see me again.

    Jackson | MJ



    Exam 1Z0-040: 1Z0-040 passed!!!
    I have passed my exam 59/60. You people are the boom. Thanks for the exam questions. They were so real!!

    CJ | DC



    Dear Support,
    I passed (as you expected) the Sun Solaris Admin I (310-011) at first trial. Thank you so much.

    Oshrit | Israel



    Just thought I would let you know I took the CCDA test on Tuesday, like I planned and scored a 902!"

    Lee W. | China



    I have used your Exams for preparation for 70-290, 70-291, 70-292, 70-296, 70-298, 70- 299, 70-300, 70-305, 70-310, 70-315, 70-316,70-320. I also passed all those on the first round. I'm currently preparing for the CCNA.

    Micheal C. | ON



    Now my dream has come true. I thank you a million times for the best study guides that you provided to a poor kid like me....I got it. Finally MCSE.

    Best regards,

    kris J. | GTA



    I passed my CCNA exam yesterday. I would like to make some comments. "Excellent Study Guide, Excellent Support Service, Excellent Examination Web Site"
    Best Regards

    Jason | California



    Thanks for your study guides, i have passed it. All questions in your material, we study this only 2 days. Thanks very very much!!!!!

    Micheal | US



    Thanks very much for your study guides, with your help i only use 3 weeks to take the MCSE. Your study guides are very very good.

    L. Woo | China



    I passed the CCIE Written exam 350-001 last Friday, Thanks very much for your study guide and your help.

    Mick H. | US



    i ust wanted to thank you folks at braindumgalaxy.com for your assistance. I used your CCNP exams for practice and to identify my weak areas. Passed the CCNP recert on Tuesday without any big problems.

    Hagit | Israel



    I have found that your resources are probably the best on the market...and I work at Cisco.

    Cisco Engineer | USA



    A well Good morning Dear killexams.com Team I wanna say that I passed the 000-888 yesterday and i am happy

    Koshani | NYC



    I took the A+ hardware exam yesterday and thanks to your excellent and helping preparation material. I got a nice score.

    Aized | Pakistan



    I passed the exam with great distinction!

    Nazanin | Toronto



    Great Price....Great Product. Keep up the good work!

    Xiwan W | China



    So far your practice exams are extremely helpful. My test scores keep on going up every time I do them and I feel very confident now.

    Ashwin | India



    The exams was excellent and helped me pass without any doubt.Very helpful! Thank you! I passed!

    Mike M | Dubai