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1Z0-058 exam Dumps Source : Oracle Real Application Clusters 11g(R) Release 2 and Grid Infrastructure Administration

Test Code : 1Z0-058
Test Name : Oracle Real Application Clusters 11g(R) Release 2 and Grid Infrastructure Administration
Vendor Name : Oracle
Q&A : 139 Real Questions

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Oracle Oracle Real Application Clusters

Oracle Database 12c liberate 2 real software Clusters instruction manual: ideas, Administration, Tuning & Troubleshooting | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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Oracle Clusterware and Oracle precise software Clusters | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter introduces Oracle Clusterware and Oracle true software Clusters (Oracle RAC) by using describing these products in addition to a way to installation, administer, and install them. This chapter describes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC architectures as well because the software and hardware components for both of those items. This chapter additionally in brief describes workload administration, capabilities, and high availability for each single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments. This chapter contains the following subject matters:

Oracle Clusterware and Oracle precise software Clusters

A cluster includes distinct interconnected computer systems or servers that appear as if they are one server to end clients and purposes. Oracle Database 10g precise software Clusters (Oracle RAC) allows for the clustering of the Oracle Database. Oracle RAC uses Oracle Clusterware for the infrastructure to bind distinct servers in order that they function as a single equipment.

Oracle Clusterware is a conveyable cluster management solution it's built-in with the Oracle database. The Oracle Clusterware is additionally a required part for the use of Oracle RAC. furthermore, Oracle Clusterware permits both single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC databases to use the Oracle excessive availability infrastructure. The Oracle Clusterware makes it possible for you to create a clustered pool of storage to be used via any combination of single-illustration and Oracle RAC databases.

Oracle Clusterware is the handiest clusterware that you just need for most platforms on which Oracle RAC operates. that you may additionally use clusterware from different vendors if the clusterware is licensed for Oracle RAC.

Single-instance Oracle databases have a one-to-one relationship between the Oracle database and the instance. Oracle RAC environments, however, have a one-to-many relationship between the database and situations. In Oracle RAC environments, the cluster database cases entry one database. The mixed processing vigor of the varied servers can give more suitable throughput and scalability than is attainable from a single server. Oracle RAC is the Oracle Database alternative that gives a single gadget photo for dissimilar servers to entry one Oracle database. In Oracle RAC, each and every Oracle illustration continually runs on a separate server.

Oracle RAC is a unique expertise that provides excessive availability and scalability for all application varieties. The Oracle RAC infrastructure is also a key component for enforcing the Oracle enterprise grid computing architecture. Having assorted instances access a single database prevents the server from being a single factor of failure. Oracle RAC enables you to mix smaller commodity servers right into a cluster to create scalable environments that support mission critical business functions. purposes that you just deploy on Oracle RAC databases can operate without code alterations.

The Oracle Clusterware architecture and Oracle Clusterware Processing

The Oracle Clusterware is application that when put in on servers operating the same working gadget, permits the servers to be certain collectively to function as if they have been one server. The Oracle Clusterware requires two clusterware components: a voting disk to list node membership counsel and the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) to list cluster configuration information. The balloting disk and the OCR need to live on shared storage. The Oracle Clusterware requires that each node be linked to a private community by the use of a personal interconnect.

The private interconnect that Oracle Clusterware requires is a separate network that you just configure between the cluster nodes. This interconnect, which is required via Oracle RAC, will also be the equal community that the clusterware uses, however the interconnect should now not be attainable by way of nodes that don't seem to be a part of the cluster.

Oracle recommends that you just configure a redundant interconnect to stay away from the interconnect from being a single element of failure. Oracle also recommends that you use user Datagram Protocol (UDP) on a Gigabit Ethernet on your cluster interconnect. Crossover cables aren't supported to be used with Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC databases.

The Oracle Clusterware manages node membership and prevents cut up mind syndrome in which two or greater situations try to control the database. this can turn up in circumstances the place there's a spoil in communique between nodes in the course of the interconnect.

The Oracle Clusterware architecture supports excessive availability by instantly restarting stopped accessories. The Oracle Clusterware can instantly re-delivery a node to steer clear of problems with that node from affecting the availability of the relaxation of the Oracle RAC environment. In an Oracle RAC ambiance, all Oracle approaches are beneath the manage of the Oracle clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware additionally provides an software programming interface (API) that allows you to manage other Oracle procedures with Oracle Clusterware.

Oracle Clusterware application component Processing details

The Oracle Clusterware includes a number of heritage processes that facilitate cluster operations. The Cluster Synchronization provider (CSS), event administration (EVM), and Oracle Cluster accessories talk with different cluster component layers within the different instances inside the equal cluster database environment. These add-ons are also the leading verbal exchange links between the Oracle Clusterware high availability components and the Oracle Database. in addition, these accessories video display and control database operations.

here list describes the features of one of the most most important Oracle Clusterware accessories. This record contains these add-ons which are processes on Unix and Linux operating techniques or features on home windows.


On windows-based mostly operating techniques, most of the add-ons are threads of the Oracle system as a substitute of separate processes.
  • Cluster Synchronization functions (CSS)—Manages the cluster configuration by controlling which nodes are members of the cluster and by notifying contributors when a node joins or leaves the cluster. if you are the usage of third-birthday party clusterware, then the css method interfaces with your clusterware to manipulate node membership information.

  • Cluster equipped features (CRS)—The fundamental program for managing high availability operations within a cluster. anything else that the crs system manages is referred to as a cluster aid which could be a database, an illustration, a carrier, a Listener, a virtual IP (VIP) handle, an utility technique, etc. The crs process manages cluster elements based on the aid's configuration assistance it's saved within the OCR. This comprises beginning, cease, video display and failover operations. The crs technique generates events when a resource repute alterations. in case you have installed Oracle RAC, crs monitors the Oracle example, Listener, etc, and instantly restarts these accessories when a failure happens. by means of default, the crs system makes 5 attempts to restart a useful resource and then doesn't make extra restart makes an attempt if the useful resource does not restart.

  • event management (EVM)—A history method that publishes pursuits that crs creates.

  • Oracle Notification service (ONS)—A put up and subscribe carrier for communicating quick application Notification (FAN) activities.

  • RACG—Extends clusterware to help Oracle-selected requirements and complex elements. Runs server callout scripts when FAN activities take place.

  • manner monitor Daemon (OPROCD)—This technique is locked in reminiscence to display screen the cluster and supply I/O fencing. OPROCD performs its determine, stops operating, and if the wake up is beyond the expected time, then OPROCD resets the processor and reboots the node. An OPROCD failure effects in Oracle Clusterware restarting the node. OPROCD uses the hangcheck timer on Linux platforms.

  • In here desk, if a method has a (r) beside it, then the technique runs as the root person. in any other case the method runs because the oracle consumer.

    table 1-1 list of techniques and windows services associated with Oracle Clusterware

    Oracle Clusterware element Linux/Unix system home windows servicesWindows tactics

    process computer screen Daemon

    oprocd (r)



    racgmain, racgimon

    racgmain.exe racgimon.exe

    Oracle Notification service (ONS)



    event supervisor

    evmd (r), evmd.bin, evmlogger


    evmlogger.exe, evmd.exe

    Cluster in a position

    crsd.bin (r)



    Cluster Synchronization capabilities

    init.cssd (r), ocssd (r), ocssd.bin



    The Oracle Clusterware application add-ons

    When Oracle Clusterware operates, a number of platform-particular techniques or capabilities will also be running on each and every node within the cluster to help Oracle Clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware platform-certain UNIX-primarily based processes and home windows-primarily based features are described under here headings:

    Oracle Clusterware strategies on UNIX-based methods

    The Oracle Clusterware strategies on UNIX-based mostly techniques are:

  • crsd—Performs excessive availability restoration and administration operations such as holding the OCR and managing utility resources. This method runs as the root person, or by means of a user within the admin community on Mac OS X-based methods. This process restarts automatically upon failure.

  • evmd—experience supervisor daemon. This manner also begins the racgevt process to manipulate FAN server callouts.

  • ocssd—Manages cluster node membership and runs because the oracle person; failure of this system consequences in cluster restart.

  • oprocd—technique display screen for the cluster. notice that this method simplest appears on platforms that do not use supplier clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.

  • note:

    Oracle RAC on Linux systems can have dissimilar threads that seem as separate methods with separate manner identifiers. Oracle Clusterware functions on home windows-based techniques

    The Oracle Clusterware capabilities on home windows-based mostly programs are:

  • OracleCRService—Performs excessive availability restoration and management operations akin to keeping the OCR and managing utility materials. This system runs as the root consumer, or by a user within the admin group on Mac OS X-primarily based techniques. This process restarts instantly upon failure.

  • OracleCSService—Manages cluster node membership and runs as oracle user; failure of this procedure outcomes in cluster restart.

  • OracleEVMService—experience manager daemon. This manner also starts the racgevt process to control FAN server callouts.

  • OraFenceService—system monitor for the cluster. notice that this system best seems on platforms that don't use supplier clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.

  • The Oracle actual application Clusters structure and Oracle precise application Clusters Processing

    An Oracle RAC database is a logically or bodily shared everything database. All datafiles, manage data, PFILEs, and redo log information in Oracle RAC environments have to reside on cluster-aware shared disks in order that all the cluster database situations can entry them. all the instances ought to additionally share the identical interconnect. furthermore, Oracle RAC databases can share the same interconnect that Oracle Clusterware uses.

    as a result of an Oracle RAC database uses a shared every little thing structure, Oracle RAC requires cluster-aware storage for all database information. it's your option as to how to configure your disk, however you must use a supported cluster-mindful storage solution. Oracle Database 10g gives automatic Storage management (ASM), which is the informed answer to manage your disk. however you may also additionally use a cluster-conscious quantity manager or a cluster file system (not required). In Oracle RAC, the Oracle Database software manages disk entry and the Oracle utility is certified to be used on loads of storage architectures. An Oracle RAC database can have up to one hundred cases. reckoning on your platform, you could use right here file storage alternatives for Oracle RAC:

  • ASM, which Oracle recommends

  • Oracle Cluster File system (OCFS), which is accessible for Linux and windows systems, or a third-celebration cluster file system it is licensed for Oracle RAC

  • A network file device

  • raw contraptions

  • Oracle RAC databases fluctuate architecturally from Oracle RACsingle-example Oracle databases in that each and every Oracle RAC database example also has:

    All nodes in an Oracle RAC ambiance must connect with a local area community (LAN) to permit users and functions to entry the database. purposes should use the Oracle Database capabilities feature to connect to an Oracle database. features enable you to outline guidelines and characteristics to control how users and purposes connect to database circumstances. These traits consist of a unique identify, workload balancing and failover options, and excessive availability traits. Oracle internet features enables the burden balancing of software connections throughout all of the instances in an Oracle RAC database.

    clients can access an Oracle RAC database the use of a consumer-server configuration or via one or more center tiers, with or without connection pooling. clients can be DBAs, developers, software users, vigour users, corresponding to statistics miners who create their own searches, and so on.

    Most public networks usually use TCP/IP, however which you can use any supported hardware and application aggregate. Oracle RAC database instances can also be accessed via a database's defined, default IP tackle and through VIP addresses.


    do not to make use of the interconnect or the inner most community for consumer communication because Cache Fusion uses the inner most interconnect for inter-illustration communications.

    apart from the node's host name and IP handle, you have to also assign a digital host identify and an IP handle to each node. The virtual host name or VIP should still be used to connect with the database illustration. for example, you could enter the virtual host name CRM within the tackle list of the tnsnames.ora file.

    A virtual IP tackle is another public address that customer connections use instead of the common public IP tackle. To configure VIP addresses, you should reserve a spare IP handle for every node that makes use of the same subnet as the public community.

    If a node fails, then the node's VIP fails over to an extra node on which the VIP cannot accept connections. commonly, VIPs fail over when the node on which a VIP runs fails or if all interfaces for the VIP fail or are disconnected from the network. customers that attempt to connect to the VIP receive a rapid connection refused error as an alternative of watching for TCP join timeout messages. You configure VIP addresses in the address list in your database connection definition to allow connectivity. here part describes the Oracle RAC application add-ons in additional element.

    The Oracle actual software Clusters application components

    Oracle RAC databases have two or greater database situations that every comprise reminiscence structures and heritage tactics. An Oracle RAC database has the same techniques and memory constructions as a single-example Oracle database in addition to further process and memory constructions that are particular to Oracle RAC. any one example's database view is pretty much similar to another illustration's view within the identical Oracle RAC database; the view is a single system photo of the atmosphere.

    each illustration has a buffer cache in its system international enviornment (SGA). the usage of Cache Fusion, Oracle RAC environments logically mix each and every instance's buffer cache to enable the situations to technique facts as if the information resided on a logically mixed, single cache.


    The SGA measurement requirements for Oracle RAC are more suitable than the SGA necessities for single-instance Oracle databases due to Cache Fusion.

    To be sure that every Oracle RAC database illustration obtains the block that it should satisfy a question or transaction, Oracle RAC instances use two tactics, the global Cache service (GCS) and the global Enqueue service (GES). The GCS and GES maintain information of the statuses of each records file and every cached block using a global useful resource listing (GRD). The GRD contents are dispensed across the entire energetic cases, which simply increases the dimension of the device global enviornment for an Oracle RAC example.

    After one instance caches information, any other illustration in the equal cluster database can purchase a block graphic from one other illustration within the equal database quicker than by using reading the block from disk. hence, Cache Fusion strikes current blocks between cases in place of re-reading the blocks from disk. When a constant block is required or a changed block is required on yet another illustration, Cache Fusion transfers the block photo at once between the affected circumstances. Oracle RAC uses the private interconnect for inter-example verbal exchange and block transfers. The global Enqueue provider display screen and the instance Enqueue system manages entry to Cache Fusion materials in addition to enqueue recuperation processing.

    These Oracle RAC tactics and the GRD collaborate to permit Cache Fusion. The Oracle RAC techniques and their identifiers are as follows:

  • LMS—global Cache service manner

  • LMD—world Enqueue provider Daemon

  • LMON—international Enqueue provider monitor

  • LCK0—instance Enqueue procedure

  • in case you use network attached Storage (NAS), then you are required to configure a 2nd inner most community. access to this network is usually controlled with the aid of the seller's application. The inner most community uses static IP addresses.


    most of the Oracle accessories that this section describes are apart from the accessories which are described for single-illustration Oracle databases in Oracle Database concepts. Oracle Clusterware components and excessive Availability

    if you happen to mix Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC, which you could obtain magnificent scalability and high availability. The Oracle Clusterware achieves this the use of the components that this area describes under here topics:

    The Oracle Clusterware voting Disk and Oracle Cluster Registry

    The Oracle Clusterware requires here two important files:

  • voting Disk—Manages cluster membership by the use of a health assess and arbitrates cluster possession among the many instances in case of network failures. Oracle RAC makes use of the vote casting disk to investigate which instances are participants of a cluster. The vote casting disk have to stay on shared disk. for top availability, Oracle recommends that you've got multiple balloting disks. The Oracle Clusterware allows assorted voting disks however you should have an bizarre number of voting disks, corresponding to three, five, and so on. in case you outline a single voting disk, then be sure to use exterior mirroring to supply redundancy.

  • Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)—continues cluster configuration suggestions in addition to configuration tips about any cluster database inside the cluster. The OCR additionally manages counsel about methods that Oracle Clusterware controls. The OCR stores configuration counsel in a sequence of key-cost pairs within a directory tree constitution. The OCR should stay on shared disk that's purchasable by using all the nodes to your cluster. The Oracle Clusterware can multiplex the OCR and Oracle recommends that you use this feature to ensure cluster excessive availability. that you can replace a failed OCR on-line, and you may update the OCR via supported APIs such as enterprise supervisor, the Server control Utility (SRVCTL), or the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA).

  • word:

    each the vote casting disks and the OCRs have to live on either cluster file device files or on shared uncooked gadgets that you just configure prior to installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle Clusterware high Availability and the software Programming Interface

    Oracle Clusterware gives a excessive availability software programming interface (API) that you should use to permit Oracle Clusterware to manipulate functions or tactics that run a cluster. This makes it possible for you to give excessive availability for your whole applications. The Oracle Clusterware with ASM allows for you to create a consolidated pool of storage to help each the single-instance Oracle databases and the Oracle RAC databases that are running to your cluster.

    To maintain excessive availability, Oracle Clusterware components can respond to repute alterations to restart applications and tactics according to defined excessive availability rules. additionally, that you may use the Oracle Clusterware high availability framework through registering your functions with Oracle Clusterware and configuring the clusterware to start, cease, or relocate your software techniques. it is, you can make customized purposes particularly available by using Oracle Clusterware to create profiles that computer screen, relocate, and restart your purposes. The Oracle Clusterware responds to FAN movements that are created by way of an Oracle RAC database. Oracle declares FAN routine when cluster servers may additionally develop into unreachable and community interfaces are slow or non-useful.

    Workload management with Oracle true software Clusters

    Workload administration makes it possible for you to manipulate the distribution of workloads to supply best performance for clients and purposes. This includes presenting the highest availability for database connections, speedy failure recovery, and balancing workloads optimally throughout the energetic configuration. Oracle Database 10g with Oracle RAC comprises many features that may increase workload administration corresponding to connection load balancing, fast connection failover (FCF), the weight balancing advisory, and Runtime Connection Load Balancing. Workload management offers the most desirable benefits to Oracle RAC environments. which you could, besides the fact that children, take capabilities of workload management by using Oracle functions in single-illustration Oracle Databases, specifically people who use data take care of or Streams. Workload management contains here components:

  • excessive Availability Framework—The Oracle RAC excessive availability framework allows for the Oracle Database to preserve add-ons in a operating state continually. Oracle excessive availability implies that Oracle Clusterware monitors and restarts essential components in the event that they cease, until you override the restart processing. The Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC also provide indicators to shoppers when configurations exchange. This enables purchasers to instantly react to the alterations, enabling software builders to hide outages and reconfigurations from end clients. The scope of Oracle excessive availability spans from the restarting of stopped Oracle processes in an Oracle database illustration to failing over the processing of a whole instance to other purchasable situations.

  • Load Balancing Advisory—here is the skill of the database to deliver guidance to purposes concerning the present provider degrees being supplied by using the database and its situations. functions can take advantage of this tips to direct connection requests to the instance that will give the application request with the most desirable service great to finished the software's processing. Oracle has integrated its Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) and Oracle statistics issuer for .internet ( connection pools to work with the burden balancing information. applications can use the integrated connection pools without programmatic changes.

  • services—Oracle Database 10g introduces a magnificent automatic workload administration facility, known as features, to enable the enterprise grid vision. capabilities are entities that you should outline in Oracle RAC databases. services allow you to community database workloads and route the work to the most appropriate circumstances which are assigned to system the service. in addition, that you may use functions to outline the supplies that Oracle assigns to system workloads and to monitor workload materials. applications that you simply assign to services transparently purchase the defined workload management features, including high availability and load balancing guidelines. Many Oracle database facets are integrated with features, similar to useful resource supervisor, which allows for you to prevent the components that a provider can use inside an example. Some database facets are additionally built-in with Oracle Streams, advanced Queuing, to obtain queue region transparency, and the Oracle Scheduler, to map capabilities to selected job classes.

    In Oracle RAC databases, the service efficiency guidelines that you configure control the volume of work that Oracle allocates to each and every accessible instance for that service. As you extend your database via adding nodes, functions, accessories of functions, and the like, that you would be able to add greater capabilities.

  • Connection Load Balancing— Oracle web capabilities offers connection load balancing for database connections. Connection load balancing occurs when the connection is created. Connections for a given provider are balanced across all the operating situations that offer the service. you should define the way you desire connections to be balanced within the carrier definition. besides the fact that children, you must nonetheless configure Oracle net features. when you allow the load balancing advisory, the Listener uses the burden balancing advisory for connection load balancing.

  • Introduction to setting up Oracle Clusterware and Oracle actual software Clusters

    This section introduces the storage alternatives for Oracle RAC and the setting up tactics for each Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC under right here topics:

    Oracle Clusterware setting up manner Description

    The Oracle Clusterware is distributed on the Oracle Database 10g installation media. The Oracle general Installer (OUI) installs Oracle Clusterware into a directory constitution, which can be known as CRS_home, it really is cut loose other Oracle software working on the machine. as a result of Oracle Clusterware works closely with the working equipment, gadget administrator entry is required for probably the most installing tasks. additionally, one of the vital Oracle Clusterware methods should run as the equipment administrator, which is often the basis person on Unix and Linux methods and the equipment Administrator person on windows programs.

    prior to installing Oracle Clusterware, Oracle recommends that you run the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to be sure that your ambiance meets the Oracle Clusterware installation requirements. The OUI additionally instantly runs CVU on the conclusion of the clusterware setting up to examine a considerable number of clusterware components. The CVU simplifies the setting up, configuration, and standard administration of the Oracle Clusterware installing manner by means of deciding on problems in cluster environments.

    right through the Oracle Clusterware installation, you must identify three IP addresses for each node that goes to be a part of your installation. One IP address is for the private interconnect and the different is for the general public interconnect. The third IP handle is the digital IP tackle that valued clientele will use to connect to each instance.

    The Oracle Clusterware setting up system creates the voting disk and OCR on cluster-aware storage. in case you choose the alternative for normal redundant copies during the setting up technique, then Oracle Clusterware instantly keeps redundant copies of these files to keep away from the information from fitting single facets of failure. The normal redundancy feature also eliminates the want for third party storage redundancy solutions. in case you use usual redundancy, Oracle Clusterware immediately continues two copies of the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) file and three copies of the balloting Disk file.


    in case you select external redundancy for the OCR and voting disk, then to enable redundancy, your disk subsystem need to be configurable for RAID mirroring. otherwise, your gadget can be inclined because the OCR and balloting disk are single points of failure. Oracle real software Clusters installing and Database creation process Description

    The Oracle RAC utility is allotted as a part of the Oracle Database 10g installing media. with the aid of default, the common Oracle Database 10g utility installing technique installs the Oracle RAC option when it recognizes that you're performing the installation on a cluster. The OUI installs Oracle RAC into a listing constitution, which can be known as Oracle_home, it's separate from other Oracle software running on the desktop. as a result of OUI is cluster-mindful, it installs the Oracle RAC utility on the entire nodes that you simply described to be a part of the cluster. if you're the use of a licensed cluster file device for the Oracle home, then most effective opt for the node that you're related to for the installing.

    You need to first set up Oracle Clusterware before setting up Oracle RAC. After Oracle Clusterware is operational, you can use OUI to install the Oracle database utility with the Oracle RAC components. all over the installation, OUI runs DBCA to create your Oracle RAC database in response to the options that you just select. The DBCA also runs the web Configuration Assistant (NETCA) to configure the community on your Oracle RAC ambiance.

    Oracle recommends that you simply choose ASM throughout the installing to simplify storage management; ASM immediately manages the storage of all database information within disk corporations. that you could also configure capabilities throughout setting up, counting on your processing requirements. if you're the use of the Oracle Database 10g average version, then you must use ASM for storing all the database files.

    by default, DBCA creates one carrier in your ambiance and this provider is for the database. The default service is available on all situations in an Oracle RAC atmosphere, except the database is in confined mode.

    Cloning Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC application in Grid Environments

    This section in brief summarizes the procedures for deploying Oracle RAC in grid environments that have big numbers of nodes using cloned photographs for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle cloning is the favored formulation of extending your Oracle RAC environment via adding nodes and situations. To operate the cloning methods that are summarized in this section, check with the Oracle frequent Installer and OPatch user's e book.that you may also use commercial enterprise manager Grid manage to function cloning.

    The cloning procedure assumes that you simply successfully installed an Oracle Clusterware home and an Oracle domestic with Oracle RAC on as a minimum one node. additionally, all root scripts have to have run effectively on the node from which you're extending your cluster database. to use Oracle cloning, first clone the Oracle Clusterware domestic and then clone the Oracle domestic with the Oracle RAC software.

    To clone the Oracle Clusterware home, on UNIX-based mostly techniques create a tar file of the Oracle Clusterware home and duplicate the file to the brand new node's Oracle Clusterware domestic. On home windows-based techniques you need to create zip info. Then on UNIX-based mostly programs create the mandatory clients and groups on the new nodes. On windows-primarily based methods, you don't need to create users and organizations, however the user that performs the cloning should still be the same person that performed the installing.

    Extract the tar file, or unzip the zip file, and run the Oracle prevalent Installer (OUI) in clone mode as described within the Oracle generic Installer and OPatch person's book. Then run the installing scripts and repeat these steps on each node that you're adding. The manner for cloning the Oracle home onto new nodes is similar to the technique for cloning the Oracle Clusterware home. furthermore, you ought to run the Oracle net Configuration Assistant (NETCA) on every new node to create a Listener.

    in case you haven't already created a database, then that you could run the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to create one. eventually, observe the post-cloning processes to comprehensive the extension of your Oracle RAC ambiance onto the brand new nodes.

    further concerns and contours for Oracle precise application Clusters

    besides configuring capabilities to manipulate your workloads, also agree with the usage of right here aspects should you deploy Oracle RAC:

  • Scaling Your Oracle RAC Database—As outlined, that you could add nodes and cases to your Oracle RAC environment the usage of Oracle cloning. in case you decide to now not use cloning, then that you could extend your database through the use of the guide procedures which are described in Chapter 10, "including and Deleting Nodes and circumstances on UNIX-based programs" or Chapter eleven, " adding and Deleting Nodes and instances on home windows-based mostly techniques".

  • enterprise supervisor—Use commercial enterprise manager to administer your complete Oracle RAC environment, not just the Oracle RAC database. Use commercial enterprise supervisor to create and regulate features, and to start and forestall the cluster database cases and the cluster database. business supervisor has further elements as distinctive in the part "Overview of using enterprise supervisor with Oracle actual software Clusters".

  • healing supervisor (RMAN)—RMAN backs up, restores, and recovers datafiles, control information, server parameter files (SPFILEs) and archived redo logs. which you can use RMAN with a media supervisor to back up info to external storage. you can also configure parallelism when backing up or recovering Oracle RAC databases. In Oracle RAC, RMAN channels can be dynamically allocated throughout the entire Oracle RAC circumstances. Channel failover allows for failed operations on one node to continue on an extra node. you can use RMAN in Oracle RAC from the Oracle business supervisor Backup supervisor or from a command line.

  • computerized undo management—instantly manages undo processing.

  • computerized section house management (ASSM)—immediately manages phase freelists and freelist organizations.

  • in the neighborhood managed tablespaces—Enhances house management efficiency.

  • Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—Use CVU to check the popularity of your clusterware in case you experience problems or use it whenever you reconfigure your cluster.

  • Sequences—if you use sequence numbers, then all the time use CACHE with the NOORDER choice for surest sequence number era performance. With the CACHE choice, despite the fact, you may have gaps within the sequence numbers. if your ambiance can't tolerate sequence number gaps, then use the NOCACHE alternative or agree with pre-generating the sequence numbers. if your utility requires sequence number ordering but can tolerate gaps, then use CACHE and ORDER to cache and order sequence numbers in Oracle RAC. if your application requires ordered sequence numbers without gaps, then use NOCACHE and ORDER. This combination has probably the most bad impact on performance compared to other caching and ordering combos.

  • Indexes—in case you use indexes, consider alternate options, akin to reverse key indexes, to optimize index efficiency. Reverse key indexes are exceptionally constructive when you have established inserts to 1 side of an index, akin to indexes which are in accordance with insert date.

  • Managing Oracle actual application Clusters Environments

    This area describes the following Oracle RAC environment management issues:

    Designing Oracle real software Clusters Environments

    agree with performing the following steps right through the design and building of purposes that you're deploying on an Oracle RAC database. believe tuning:

  • The design and the utility

  • The memory and that i/O

  • rivalry

  • The operating equipment

  • note:

    If an application does not scale on an SMP desktop, then moving the utility to an Oracle RAC database can't enhance efficiency.

    agree with the use of hash partitioning for insert-intensive on-line transaction processing (OLTP) purposes. Hash partitioning:

  • Reduces contention on concurrent inserts into a single database constitution

  • impacts sequence-based indexes when indexes are in the neighborhood partitioned with a table and tables are partitioned on sequence-primarily based keys

  • Is clear to the application

  • in case you hash partitioned tables and indexes for OLTP environments, then which you could drastically increase efficiency for your Oracle RAC database. note that you just can't use index latitude scans on an index with hash partitioning.

    if you're the use of sequence numbers, then always use the CACHE option. in case you use sequence numbers with the CACHE option, then:

    Administrative equipment for Oracle real software Clusters Environments

    Oracle allows for you to administer a cluster database as a single gadget photo through business manager, SQL*Plus, or through Oracle RAC command-line interfaces comparable to Server manage (SRVCTL). that you could also use several tools and utilities to manipulate your Oracle RAC environment and its accessories as follows:

  • business supervisor—commercial enterprise supervisor has each the Database manage and Grid manage GUI interfaces for managing each single example and Oracle RAC environments.

  • Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—CVU is a command-line device so you might use to assess a number cluster and Oracle RAC-specific components corresponding to shared storage contraptions, networking configurations, device necessities, and Oracle Clusterware, in addition to working device groups and users. you can use CVU for pre-installation checks in addition to for put up-installing tests of your cluster environment. CVU is particularly beneficial throughout pre-installing and throughout installation of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC components. The OUI runs CVU after Oracle Clusterware and the Oracle installing to assess your environment.

  • Server control (SRVCTL)—SRVCTL is a command-line interface so you might use to manipulate an Oracle RAC database from a single element. that you may use SRVCTL to birth and stop the database and circumstances and to delete or movement circumstances and functions. which you can also use SRVCTL to manage configuration assistance.

    See additionally:

    Appendix E for greater tips about SRVCTL
  • Cluster capable functions manage (CRSCTL)—CRSCTL is a command-line tool for you to use to manage Oracle Clusterware. that you could use CRSCTL to start and stop Oracle Clusterware. CRSCTL has many alternatives corresponding to enabling online debugging,

  • Oracle Interface Configuration device (OIFCFG)—OIFCFG is a command-line tool for each single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments so that you can use to allocate and de-allocate community interfaces to add-ons. which you could additionally use OIFCFG to direct accessories to use particular community interfaces and to retrieve component configuration information.

  • OCR Configuration device (OCRCONFIG)—OCRCONFIG is a command-line tool for OCR administration. that you could additionally use the OCRCHECK and OCRDUMP utilities to troubleshoot configuration problems that affect the OCR.

  • Monitoring Oracle real software Clusters Environments

    net-primarily based commercial enterprise manager Database control and Grid manage permit you to display screen an Oracle RAC database. The enterprise manager Console is a valuable factor of manage for the Oracle atmosphere that you entry by way of a graphical user interface (GUI). Use the enterprise manager Console to initiate cluster database administration projects. Use commercial enterprise manager Grid control to manage dissimilar Oracle RAC databases. additionally be aware right here elements about monitoring Oracle RAC environments:

  • The global views, or GV$ views, are in accordance with V$ views. The catclustdb.sql script creates the GV$ views. Run this script in case you don't create your database with DBCA. in any other case, DBCA runs this script for you.

  • Statspack is Oracle RAC-aware.


    as an alternative of using Statspak, Oracle recommends that you just use the extra sophisticated management and monitoring features of the Oracle Database 10g Diagnostic and Tuning packs which encompass the computerized Database Diagnostic video display (ADDM).
  • Evaluating efficiency in Oracle actual application Clusters Environments

    You don't need to function special tuning for Oracle RAC; Oracle RAC scales with out particular configuration changes. in case your application carried out neatly on a single-instance Oracle database, then it is going to perform well in an Oracle RAC atmosphere. most of the tuning projects that you'd perform on a single-illustration Oracle database can additionally increase Oracle RAC database efficiency. here's especially true in case your atmosphere required scalability across a improved variety of CPUs.

    some of the Oracle RAC efficiency facets are:

  • Dynamic useful resource Allocation

  • Cache Fusion permits A Simplified Tuning Methodology

  • You don't have to tune any parameters for Cache Fusion

  • No application-level tuning is critical

  • you could use a backside-up tuning approach with very nearly no impact for your current functions

  • more targeted performance information

  • New Oracle VM Templates for Oracle actual software Clusters Now available | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    New Oracle VM Templates for Oracle real application Clusters Now attainable

    supply: Oracle organization

    Oracle Corporation

    November 15, 2010 08:00 ET

    Simplifies Deployment of a tremendously purchasable, Virtualized Database

    REDWOOD SHORES, CA--(Marketwire - November 15, 2010) - Oracle (NASDAQ: ORCL)

    information statistics

  • Enabling shoppers to unexpectedly install a totally available, virtualized database, Oracle today announced the provision of new Oracle VM Templates for Oracle Database 11g liberate 2 and Oracle true application Clusters.
  • by way of featuring pre-put in and pre-configured application photographs, Oracle VM Templates give an ingenious strategy to deploying a fully configured utility stack and permit virtual and cloud environments to be provisioned directly, with no trouble, perpetually, and with simplified management.
  • the brand new Oracle VM Templates for Oracle real application Clusters supply a fast and simple method to installation a database cluster on Oracle VM for construction, look at various and creation environments. Clusters of any variety of nodes may also be built, and the entire installation is automatic, asking for minimal counsel from the person when visitors are booted.
  • Combining the advantages of Oracle VM for x86 and Oracle precise software Clusters presents a incredibly available database cloud answer with all of the advantages of a completely virtualized environment.
  • the new Oracle VM Templates are available in 32-bit or 64-bit equipment formats.
  • enjoyable aggregate of Virtualization and Clustering Speeds Time to Market and enables better Availability

  • Use of Oracle VM Templates vastly simplifies setting up and configuration, helping reduce initial and ongoing preservation charges and allowing groups to obtain quicker time to market and decrease cost of operations.
  • with the aid of deploying Oracle real utility Clusters in Oracle VM environments with the brand new templates, shoppers can benefit from stronger database availability. 
  • The combination of Oracle VM and Oracle precise application Clusters enables continual availability within the face of hardware and utility disasters, a great deal larger availability than would traditionally be bought via hypervisor-handiest solutions from vendors like VMware, that may most effective circulate and restart failed digital machines. 
  • Oracle VM Templates are additionally obtainable for Oracle applications, Oracle Fusion Middleware, Oracle Database, Oracle Linux, Oracle Solaris and different Oracle items.
  • assisting Quote

  • "handiest Oracle offers the exciting combination of clustering and virtualization," mentioned Wim Coekaerts, senior vice chairman, Linux and Virtualization Engineering, Oracle. "the use of an Oracle VM infrastructure combined with the performance, scalability and resiliency of Oracle actual software Clusters and Oracle VM Templates, we aid consumers vastly reduce deployment and operational prices whereas enabling a incredibly available infrastructure."
  • helping substances

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    Nigeria: Oracle Database 11G Debuts, Pledges Quality Service | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This latest generation of database builds on the innovations introduced in Oracle Database 11g to help organizations deliver better information throughout the enterprise, at a higher quality of service, and at a much lower cost.

    In this release, Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) delivers grid plug and play and new server pooling capabilities that enable organizations to reduce their server costs by streamlining the provisioning and management of consolidated database grids.


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    How to migrate Oracle 10g to RAC cluster on Linux | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    I need to migrate a single-instance Oracle database, version, on Tru64 to a RAC cluster, version 10.2, on Linux. What is the best methodology to do this?

    There are three major changes happening here: one is an upgrade from Oracle 10g release 1 to release2, the next is a database move to a different platform, and the final change involves converting a single-instance database to RAC. First, you will want to decide how to upgrade your database to 10.2 as well as how to migrate it from Tru64 to Linux. A good reference is the Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) Upgrade Guide.

    You have a couple of choices with respect to the upgrade:

  • Perform an upgrade in place to 10.2 (as long as your operating system is at 5.1b) and then use the cross-platform transportable tablepaces feature to move the database to the Linux server.
  • Create a new database on the Linux server and use export/import, or a database link to copy the data across.
  • Which option you choose will depend on how large your database is and how much of an outage you have to perform this migration. The upgrade guide discusses all of these options. For more information on transportable tablespaces, the Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) Administrator's Guide is a good reference.

    After the upgrade is completed and the database has been migrated to the Linux server, then you need to consider how to configure RAC. A good place to start is to review the Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) for Linux - Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide.

    Carefully review the section titled "Converting to Oracle Real Application Clusters from Single-Instance Oracle Databases."

    Another good reference is the Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) - Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide.

    Why an Application Grid? | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Application servers, those dependable workhorses that run most enterprise Java applications, are rarely a hot topic of conversation these days. As a technology category, the application server appears to be fairly "established" and that the focus has moved elsewhere in the stack, but appearances can be deceiving.

    In fact, much remains to be done at the application server layer. One area ripe for innovation is the ability for application server instances to work together to enable more rapid deployment of new applications and hardware while at the same time improving the utilization of underlying physical resources. In contrast to the traditional one-app/one-app-server/one-OS/one-machine architecture, a new approach has emerged with multiple application servers pooling and sharing lower-cost compute resources, while dynamically reallocating these resources across applications as needs evolve.

    Grid computing refers to the aggregation of multiple, distributed computing resources, making them function as a single computing resource with respect to a particular computational task. Grid is a form of virtualization in the sense that it hides the details of resources and makes them appear like something different. Application grid applies the same concept to application servers and describes an architecture in which multiple application server instances work together to provide a shared, dynamically allocatable pool of resources to a set of applications.

    Why an Application Grid?Before delving into what it takes to make this concept work, let's look at the motivation for seeking an alternative approach in the first place. What is the primary infrastructure challenge as it stands today? An issue widely discussed in the pages of Java Developer's Journal is that of stove-piped architecture whereby applications are structured as monolithic entities that are difficult to integrate and reuse. Industry adoption of SOA has gone a long way to breaking down stovepipes at the application level. SOA achieves this by decomposing applications into finer-grained services that can be connected and reused in a more flexible way. Stove-piped resources typically remain underneath each of these SOA services - machines that are statically allocated to the entities they run. As each stovepipe (stack) is statically configured, bringing new stacks online takes a lot of effort and a big investment in hardware that will likely be underutilized.

    With an application grid, the allocation of machines to applications is dynamic since it becomes easier to bring both new machines and new applications into service. With a stovepipe under an application, increasing capacity typically means adding another app server/OS/machine stack and then putting a mechanism in place to load-balance. This causes inefficiency because you don't get linear scaling - doubling the number of servers doesn't get you double the number of transactions per second or concurrent users - because other bottlenecks come into play. By contrast new application grid-enabled application servers support clustering that scales to much higher levels.

    An application grid also helps improve hardware efficiency because excess capacity can be redirected to applications that need it most. By sharing and pooling resources, an application grid allows the total compute resources required to be less than the sum of all the applications' peak demands. Since few applications hit their peak loads at the same time in most environments, shared resources can be moved from lower-demand applications to those with higher demand. Continuous, automated, dynamic adjustment of resources is one of the primary capabilities of the application grid architecture.

    Finally, an application grid enables a higher quality of service. Faster response times and higher reliability, which come from the application grid's ability to parallelize computation, replicate data across distributed nodes, and reduce interruptions from network problems or Java garbage collection, allow more computation per unit of time, and improve resiliency by eliminating single points of failure and automating failover. An application grid also provides tools to manage a collection of machines in an aggregated way, enabling faster administrative response and reducing human error.

    Creating an Application GridSounds great, but can this be achieved with current technologies? There is certainly more work for vendors in future product releases, but much can be done today. There are four fundamental capabilities that must be in place at the application server level: clustering, adjusting, metering, and automating.

    Clustering is supported by most application servers, though with varying levels of reliability and administration. It is most often used for availability/failover: instances in a cluster divide work and replicate data, such as Web user sessions; each instance is responsible to another member of the cluster that serves as a backup. A backup server automatically takes over responsibilities in the event of the primary's failure. Clustering also allows horizontal scale-out since work is distributed (load-balanced) across the cluster.

    Adjustment capability coupled with scale-out clustering is a key element of application grids. It's one thing to statically set up a set of application server instances (nodes) as a cluster and put load balancing in front of it. But when nodes can be added to or removed from the cluster while the application is running, we have the basis for dynamic scaling.

    Metering, or instrumentation, complements adjustment. We need to adjust clusters for visibility into what's happening inside them. Are any computing resources near critical thresholds? Are application service levels in danger? In short, the application server, the Java Virtual Machine, and other resources must provide the right kind of information about things like memory use and latency.

    Once we have dynamically adjustable clustering with good instrumentation, the linchpin of the application grid is automation. This meta-level controller plugs into the adjustment controls and metering instruments of the clusters creating an automated feedback loop of observations and adjustments. The mechanism adds nodes to clusters in need of capacity and removes nodes from clusters with reduced need. Since each cluster is ignorant of the surrounding clusters competing for resources, the application grid controller makes allocation decisions that are optimal for the grid overall, taking into account demands, resources, and policies.

    Getting StartedMany enterprises have already started down the path to an application grid by using the clustering mechanisms in contemporary application servers for horizontal scale-out and by using scripting to partially automate the addition and removal of nodes.

    State-of-the-art distributed caching technologies complement these early steps by creating an even more dynamic in-memory data grid with extreme scalability. Real-time JVM technology provides the predictability and additional instrumentation for applications with microsecond latency demands. And finally, as understanding and practices around application grid mature, management technologies with increasingly sophisticated mechanisms for cross-grid optimization will continue to evolve.

    The combination of accelerating business change and the agility enabled by SOA imposes increasingly volatile demands on infrastructure. At the same time, the economic climate is driving the need for greater resource efficiency. It's time for a new approach to application resourcing: application grid.

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