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000-106 exam Dumps Source : Power Systems with POWER7 Common Technical Sales Skills (R) v1
Test Code : 000-106
Test Name : Power Systems with POWER7 Common Technical Sales Skills (R) v1
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 115 Real Questions
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IBM Power Systems with POWER7
IBM Refreshes gadget P Line with POWER7-primarily based items
large Blue's refresh comprises the gargantuan vigour 795, which it pits towards exact-shelf systems from HP and Oracle.
by way of Stephen Swoyer
IBM Corp. remaining week refreshed its gadget p server line with a number of new POWER7-based mostly programs. The most recent POWER7 entries may not ship unless September 17.
they'll likely be worth the wait. large Blue's revamped gadget p line contains the gargantuan 256-way vigor 795, which IBM pits without delay towards accurate-shelf offerings from Hewlett-Packard Co. (HP) and Oracle Corp.
big Blue isn't just thinking big, however: it additionally unveiled 4 equipment p "express" entries -- i.e., smaller, much less-costly techniques slated for the mid-market. IBM's POWER7 push additionally includes a committed equipment -- viz., the sensible Analytics equipment 7700 -- designed for enterprise intelligence (BI) and statistics warehousing workloads. it be of a chunk with the smart Analytics initiative that huge Blue kicked off ultimate summer season, simply previous to its acquisition of analytics powerhouse SPSS Inc.
IBM's 256-core energy 795 performs to device p's (and RISC/Unix's) common strengths, and its smaller categorical entries -- the vigour 710, 720, 730, and 740 programs -- contain large Blue's newest effort to grapple with commodity x86 (or x64, as is universally the case) servers operating chips from advanced Micro instruments (AMD) Inc. and Intel Corp. previously, big Blue had offered most effective a single vigor-based categorical device, the energy 720.
in this case, big Blue is betting that a lots decrease cost (enabled partly by using POWER7 chips that may in any other case were discarded) as well as an skill to run AIX, gadget i and Linux workloads will aid tip the scales in device p's desire. moreover, with POWER7, IBM is once again fielding a 2U kind-element server -- in fact, two 2U form-element servers, the energy 710 and the vigour 730. Add it all up and you've got what appears like a good effort to tackle the commodity server phase -- a historically challenging phase to crack.
In an business it really is relocating to commoditization (and relentlessly, at that), IBM Corp. is sticking to its proprietary weapons.
To make certain, massive Blue is a creditable commodity player -- its system x hardware line is powered by way of chips from both AMD and Intel; its equipment x BladeCenter portfolio (which includes an influence-primarily based offering) is not any. 2, average, at the back of HP -- nevertheless it likewise remains committed to homegrown silicon efforts equivalent to POWER7, which powers (in one form or an extra) its gadget i, equipment p, and device z hardware traces.
In a way, massive Blue's POWER7 CMOS now stands as the closing of the Credible x86 alternatives.
HP and Intel proceed to invest in IA64 (which is in response to an EPIC structure); Oracle has talked about lots of the correct things about SPARC (which has nevertheless been hemorrhaging relevance for half a decade or more); and other avid gamers (reminiscent of Fujitsu and Unisys Corp.) push their personal proprietary CMOS flavors, however none can factor to the kind of earnings performance (relative to income of competitive, non-commodity systems) that IBM can.
It seems that more suitable and faster transistors made of graphene aren't all that IBM is engaged on, considering the fact that its contemporary press unencumber speaks of a brand new set of POWER7 servers for annoying emerging purposes.
though no longer definitely focused on the consumer market, IBM is certainly one of biggest names on the business, commercial enterprise and industrial sectors as far as computing goes.
It has a big portfolio of machine for both current and emerging functions, with economic services, scientific analysis and healthcare management being simply a number of of its retailers.
What the business did most lately was bring a brand new batch of more suitable POWER7 blades and servers, which are additionally first rate for consolidation and virtualization.
"Our strategy looks to be paying off as more and more consumers opt for vigor systems," observed Tom Rosamilia, everyday manager of IBM energy and z techniques.
One product is the sixteen-core, single-huge IBM BladeCenter PS703, which can also be an alternative to sprawling racks and is good for americans worried with power efficiency.
The BladeCenter PS704 is comparable to its sibling above, simplest it has double the quantity of cores and, therefore, 60-p.c quicker efficiency within the same area requirements as outdated-era POWER7 items.
The announcement also mentions the upgraded IBM power 750 express and the better power 755, each with 32 POWER7 cores now.
"we are operating billions of severe calculations in accordance with Einstein's thought of relativity on the POWER7 blades," said Gaurav Khanna, professor of physics at UMass-Dartmouth.
"operating POWER7, i'm able to get results as lots as eight times quicker than working the equal calculations on an Intel Xeon processor. Calculations that used to take a month to run are now finished in lower than per week. This ability that i will do eight times more science within the equal timeframe than I could do earlier than."
This web page may still have tips on the rest concerning IBMs smarter computing initiative.
prior during this decade, when the hyperscalers and the teachers that run with them had been building laptop getting to know frameworks to transpose every kind of data from one structure to one other – speech to text, textual content to speech, photograph to text, video to text, etc – they were doing so no longer only for scientific curiosity. They had been trying to remedy real enterprise issues and addressing the needs of purchasers the usage of their application.
on the identical time, IBM become trying to remedy a distinct difficulty, naming developing a question-reply equipment that might anthropomorphize the hunt engine. This effort was called undertaking Blue J interior of IBM (now not to be perplexed with the open source BlueJ integrated building environment for Java), become wrapped up into a application stack known as DeepQA via IBM. It changed into this DeepQA stack, which was based on the open source Hadoop unstructured statistics storage and analytics engine that came out of Yahoo and yet another mission called Apache UIMA, which predates Hadoop with the aid of several years and which become designed by using IBM database specialists in the early 2000s to technique unstructured statistics like text, audio, and video. This Deep QA stack became embedded in the Watson QA device that become designed to play Jeopardy against people, which we observed in element right here eight years in the past. The Apache UIMA stack become the key a part of the WatsonQA gadget that did natural language processing that parsed out the speech in a Jeopardy reply, converted it to textual content, and fed it into the statistical algorithms to create the Jeopardy question.
Watson received the competition in opposition t human Jeopardy champs Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings, and a brand – which invoked IBM founder Thomas Watson and his admonition to “feel” as well as doctor Watson, the sidekick of fictional supersleuth Sherlock Holmes – was born.
rather than make Watson a product for sale, IBM provided it as a provider, and pumped the QA system filled with facts to tackle the healthcare, fiscal services, power, promoting and media, and education industries. This was, most likely, a mistake, but at the time, in the wake of the Jeopardy championship, it felt like every thing changed into moving to the cloud and that the SaaS mannequin was the correct manner to move. IBM under no circumstances definitely talked in exquisite detail about how DeepQA turned into constructed, and it has in a similar way not been certain about how this Watson stack has changed over time – eight years is a very long time within the machine getting to know house. It isn't clear if Watson is material to IBM’s revenues, however what is clear is that machine studying is strategic for its programs, software, and capabilities businesses.
So it's why IBM is ultimately bringing collectively all of its laptop researching equipment and placing them beneath the Watson company and, very importantly, making the Watson stack available for buy so it can be run on private datacenters and in other public clouds anyway the one that IBM runs. To be specific, the Watson features as neatly because the PowerAI machine discovering training frameworks and adjunct tools tuned up to run on clusters of IBM’s vigour systems machines, are being introduced collectively, and they're going to be put into Kubernetes containers and dispensed to run on the IBM Cloud deepest Kubernetes stack, which is attainable on X86 methods in addition to IBM’s personal power iron, in virtualized or naked steel modes. It is this encapsulation of this new and finished Watson stack with IBM Cloud inner most stack that makes it moveable throughout deepest datacenters and other clouds.
incidentally, as a part of the mashup of these tools, the PowerAI stack that makes a speciality of deep gaining knowledge of, GPU-accelerated machine researching, and scaling and disbursed computing for AI, is being made a core part of the Watson Studio and Watson laptop discovering (Watson ML) utility tools. This built-in application suite offers enterprise information scientists an conclusion-to-conclusion developer equipment. Watson Studio is an integrated building environment based on Jupyter notebooks and R Studio. Watson ML is a set of desktop and deep getting to know libraries and model and records management. Watson OpenScale is AI model monitoring and bias and equity detection. The application formerly referred to as PowerAI and PowerAI enterprise will proceed to be developed by way of the Cognitive programs division. The Watson division, if you aren't typical with IBM’s organizational chart, is a component of its Cognitive solutions group, which comprises databases, analytics equipment, transaction processing middleware, and a lot of purposes distributed both on premises or as a service on the IBM Cloud.
it's doubtful how this Watson stack may exchange within the wake of IBM closing the purple Hat acquisition, which should occur earlier than the conclusion of the year. nonetheless it is least expensive to count on that IBM will tune up all of this application to run on crimson Hat commercial enterprise Linux and its own KVM virtual machines and OpenShift implementation of Kubernetes after which push basically tough.
it's doubtless effective to review what PowerAI is all about and then show how it is being melded into the Watson stack. before the integration and the name changes (greater on that in a second), here is what the PowerAI stack gave the look of:
in keeping with Bob Picciano, senior vice president of Cognitive systems at IBM, there are more than 600 enterprise customers that have deployed PowerAI equipment to run laptop researching frameworks on its vigour programs iron, and obviously GPU-accelerated programs just like the vigor AC922 gadget it's at the coronary heart of the “Summit” supercomputer at o.k.Ridge national Laboratory and the sibling “Sierra” supercomputer at Lawrence Livermore country wide Laboratory are the main IBM machines individuals are the usage of to do AI work. here's decent delivery for a nascent trade and a platform that is comparatively new to the AI crowd, but possibly no longer so diverse for commercial enterprise customers which have used vigour iron of their database and utility tiers for decades.
The initial PowerAI code from two years in the past begun with types of the TensorFlow, Caffe, PyTorch, and Chainer computing device learning frameworks that massive Blue tuned up for its vigor processors. The huge innovation with PowerAI is what's called colossal model assist, which makes use of the coherency between Nvidia “Pascal” and “Volta” Tesla GPU accelerators and Power8 and Power9 processors within the IBM energy programs servers – enabled via NVLink ports on the energy processors and tweaks to the Linux kernel – to allow a whole lot better neural community training models to be loaded into the gadget. all the PowerAI code is open source and distributed as code or binaries, and up to now only on vigour processors. (We suspect IBM will go agnostic on this eventually, due to the fact that Watson equipment have to run on the huge public clouds, which with the exception now of the IBM Cloud, will not have vigor programs accessible. (Nimbix, a professional in HPC and AI and a smaller public cloud, does present power iron and helps PowerAI, by the way.)
below this, IBM has created a foundation called PowerAI business, and here is now not open supply and it is just purchasable as part of a subscription. PowerAI commercial enterprise provides Message Passing Interface (MPI) extensions to the laptop studying frameworks – what IBM calls allotted Deep learning – as well as cluster virtualization and computerized hyper-parameter optimization options, embedded in its Spectrum Conductor for Spark (yes, that Spark, the in-reminiscence processing framework) tool. IBM has also introduced what it calls the Deep getting to know impact module, which contains equipment for managing records (reminiscent of ETL extraction and visualization of datasets) and managing neural community fashions, including wizards that imply the way to superior use statistics and models. On good of this stack, IBM’s first commercial AI utility that it's promoting is known as PowerAI imaginative and prescient, which can be used to label graphic and video information for practising models and automatically coach fashions (or augment current models supplied with the license).
So in any case of the adjustments, here's what the brand new Watson stack feels like:
As that you would be able to see, the Watson laptop getting to know stack supports much more machine discovering frameworks, specifically the SnapML framework that got here out of IBM’s research lab in Zurich that's providing a significant performance abilities on energy iron compared to running frameworks like Google’s TensorFlow. this is definitely a greater finished stack for machine studying, including Watson Studio for constructing models, the important Watson machine studying stack for practicing and deploying fashions in production inference, and now Watson OpenScale (it is mislabeled within the chart) to monitor and assist enhance the accuracy of fashions in line with how they are operating within the box as they infer things.
For the second, there is not any alternate in PowerAI enterprise licenses and pricing throughout the first quarter, however after that PowerAI business might be brought into the Watson stack to add the disbursed GPU computing device studying working towards and inference capabilities atop energy iron to that stack. So Watson, which began out on Power7 machines taking part in Jeopardy, is coming back domestic to Power9 with creation computing device gaining knowledge of purposes within the enterprise. We aren't definite if IBM will offer equivalent allotted computer gaining knowledge of capabilities on non-power machines, but it seems seemingly it's customers wish to run the Watson stack on premises or in a public cloud, it's going to must. vigor methods will have to stand by itself deserves if that comes to pass, and given the benefits that Power9 chips have with regard to compute, I/O and memory bandwidth, and coherent reminiscence throughout CPUs and GPUs, that may not be as tons of an influence as we might think. The X86 structure will should win by itself deserves, too.
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Early adopters of LED lighting will remember 50,000 hour or even 100,000 hour lifetime ratings printed on the box. But during a recent trip to the hardware store the longest advertised lifetime I found was 25,000 hours. Others claimed only 7,500 or 15,000 hours. And yes, these are brand-name bulbs from Cree and GE.
So, what happened to those 100,000 hour residential LED bulbs? Were the initial estimates just over-optimistic? Was it all marketing hype? Or, did we not know enough about LED aging to predict the true useful life of a bulb?
I put these questions to the test. Join me after the break for some background on the light bulb cartel from the days of incandescent bulbs (not a joke, a cartel controlled the life of your bulbs), and for the destruction of some modern LED bulbs to see why the lifetimes are clocking in a lot lower than the original wave of LED replacements.
Ghosts of Light Bulb Cartels Past
Any discussion of light bulb lifetime would be incomplete without mention of the Phoebus cartel, an international organization formed in 1924 by the world’s leading light bulb manufacturers to manipulate the bulb market. As discussed by Markus Krajewski in “The Great Lightbulb Conspiracy”, the cartel assigned territories to member companies, limited production, and dictated a shortened 1,000 hour bulb life. Previous bulbs had burned for a much longer 1,500 – 2,500 hours. Purportedly imposed to increase quality, efficiency, and light output, the new 1,000 hour limit also resulted in many more bulb sales. Archived documents show that significant research was expended to devise bulbs that lasted their 1,000 appointed hours and no more. It wasn’t only household lighting that took a hit: flashlight bulbs originally lasting for three sets of batteries were reduced to two, with a proposal to limit their lifetime to a single set. Again, brightness increases were touted as the reason. However, that last step, halving bulb lifetime, would increase brightness only between 11%-16%, while doubling sales. This was about selling more bulbs and making more money.
The cartel enforced production quotas and bulb lifetimes with a system of monetary fines, backed by the power of GE’s patent portfolio. Bulbs from each producer were tested, and penalties imposed for bulbs lasting significantly shorter or longer than 1,000 hours. Phoebus continued to exert influence on the market until World War II ended its reign. The cartel is often cited as one of the first instances of planned obsolescence: designing products with an artificially shortened lifespan. A 2010 documentary, “The Light Bulb Conspiracy,” explores the history of the cartel along with some more recent instances of planned obsolescence. I wonder what the conspirators would have thought of bulbs that supposedly last 100,000 hours? Or even 7,500?
Tucked into a lower shelf in the lighting isle at the hardware store, a few lonely incandescent bulbs waited for some Luddite consumer. Picking up a box, I read the rated lifetime: 1,000 hours.
Measuring Lifetime of a Bulb
What exactly does the box mean with this 1,000 hour lifetime? This is the bulb’s Average Rated Life (ARL) — it’s the length of time for 50% of an initial sample of bulbs to fail (abbreviated B50). What “failure” means depends on the type of bulb; we’ll explore this in more depth later on. The definition of B50 reveals a common misinterpretation, namely that a bulb will last for its rated lifetime. In reality, only half of them last that long, although this rating doesn’t tell you anything about the distribution of failures around the median lifetime.
Manufacturers use these ARL values to forecast how many years a bulb will last based on using the bulb a specified number of hours per day (typically 3). LED bulbs suffer less wear-out through power cycling than incandescents, so the conversion is just a division: years of service = ARL/(3*365). For example, half of a set of 100,000-hour bulbs would still be in service after 91 years according to this calculation. But this simple metric doesn’t tell the whole story. LED bulb failure mechanisms are complex and fundamentally different from the well-known incandescents. To understand more, we need to shed some light on the inner workings of a bulb.
Before leaving the store, I threw a few bulbs in my cart so I could see firsthand what was inside.
What’s In a Bulb? Let’s Tear Some Apart!
Left-to-right: Teardown of GE 7,500 hour “Basic”, GE 15,000 hour “Classic”, and 25,000-hour Cree A19 LED bulbs.
There’s more to an LED bulb than just the LEDs. Outlets in our homes are actually fairly dirty sources of AC power. LEDs want clean, constant-current DC sources, so circuits inside the bulbs must rectify and filter the incoming AC, then limit current to the LED packages. To see how this is done, I dissected three different A19 style bulbs: one each from the GE “Basic” and “Classic” lines (7,500 and 15,000 hours), and a Cree model offering a 25,000 hour life.
GE Basic A19 Bulb (7,500 Hours Advertised)
GE Basic A19 Bulb uses a circuit straight from the SM2082D datasheet.
This GE bulb has a plastic dome covering a circular aluminum PCB which carries eight LED packages and the driver electronics. The driver consists of an MB10F bridge rectifier, an electrolytic capacitor rated for 105 °C, and an SM2082D linear constant-current driver. There are three resistors on the PCB: one bleeds charge from the capacitor when the bulb is off, and two others set the SM2082D current to 54 mA. In fact, the circuit looks like it was taken directly from the SM2082D datasheet.
Seven of the 3.5 x 2.8 mm LED packages show around 18 V of forward drop when driven with 50 mA, indicating that they contain six LED dice in series. One LED on the board shows a drop of 9 V, so it has only three LED chips. All the LEDs, totaling 45 dice, are wired in series to drop approximately 135V.
GE Classic A19 Bulb (15,000 Hours Advertised)
When they say classic, they mean it. This bulb is in a glass envelope just like incandescents, and like those old bulbs, the glass is easily removed with a ball-peen hammer. In place of the tungsten filament is an aluminum PCB folded into a squat obelisk. Sixteen 3.5 x 2.8 mm LED packages are connected in series on the board, with each one showing a forward voltage of around 9 V at 50 mA. So, this version has 48 LED chips vs 45 for the Basic bulb, except they’re in twice as many packages – this is good for keeping the LEDs cool.
Another difference with this longer-lived bulb is that the driver electronics are not thermally coupled to the LEDs; they are hidden on a separate PCB in the screw base. This keeps the rest of the components from heating with the LEDs. On the driver PCB is a bridge rectifier, an electrolytic capacitor again rated for 105°C, and an SOIC-8 IC. Interestingly, this bulb also contains a metal-oxide varistor for transient suppression. Although I couldn’t determine what the house-marked (“BYSACT”) driver IC was, the lack of any inductive components on the PCB indicates this is another linear supply.
Cree A19 Bulb (25,000 Hours Advertised)
The Cree bulb has a diffused plastic dome like the GE Basic model. Inside, a larger aluminum PCB holds (16) 3.5 x 2.8 mm LED packages. Each LEDs drops around 8.5 V at 50 mA, so they contain 3 chips; like the GE Classic bulb, this one uses 48 total LED dice. The LEDs are wired as eight sections of two paralleled LEDs, so the total drop is around 68 V. The LED PCB is coupled to a thick aluminum heat sink with silicone thermal compound.
As with the GE Classic bulb, the power supply electronics are on a separate PCB, thermally decoupled from the LEDs. The driver IC is an SOT23-5 package inscrutably marked with “SaAOC”, but the presence of a transformer and stout Schottky diode reveals that this is a switch-mode power supply. The filter capacitor on the switcher output is an aluminum electrolytic rated for 130 °C.
It’s not much to go on, but what conclusions can we draw from the design of these three bulbs? It helps to consider how they typically fail, and what factors affect their lifetime.
LEDs “Outlast” Other Components
Since the LED bulbs contain a number of parts, it’s natural to ask which ones might be responsible for failures. The US Department of Energy (DoE)’s solid-state lighting program supports research and development of LED technologies, and their website contains volumes of data on LED lighting systems. Their Lifetime and Reliability Fact Sheet contains data on the failure rate of 5,400 outdoor lamps over 34 million hours of operation. Interestingly, the LEDs themselves account for only 10% of the failures; driver circuitry, on the other hand, was responsible almost 60% of the time. The remainder of failures were due to housing problems, which may not be as applicable for bulbs in indoor use. This data shows that at least for catastrophic failures (where the lamp ceases to emit light), extending lifetime means improving the power supplies.
Locate the Weakest Link: Component Lifetime
The lifetime of a bulb (or power supply) can be no longer than the lifetime of any of its components. Among the components found inside the bulbs, two stand out as life-limiters: the semiconductors and the electrolytic capacitors. Both of these components suffer from a failure rate that is a strong function of temperature. The typical model for this effect, based on the Arrhenius equation, predicts a doubling of lifetime for each 10 degree Celsius decrease in temperature, at least over a limited range.
The two longer-lived bulbs use twice as many packages to carry approximately the same number of LED dice as the GE Basic lamp, decreasing thermal resistance to their respective heatsinks, and presumably reducing their temperature. These bulbs also both mount the failure-prone driver electronics on separate PCBs from the LEDs to keep them cool. Finally, the 25,000-hour Cree bulb uses an electrolytic capacitor rated for 130 °C as opposed to the 105 °C caps in the other two. For similar operating temperatures, this could multiply the expected life of the capacitor by a factor of five. Each of these measures probably contributes to delaying catastrophic failure of the bulb, resulting in the longer rated lifetimes.
But when it comes to the LEDs themselves, there is more to lifetime estimates than predicting catastrophic failure.
Just Fade Away
Like the soldiers in Douglas MacArthur’s famous line, old LEDs don’t die, they just fade away. We all know what an incandescent lamp failure looks like: one second it’s burning bright; the next, it’s not (and every once-in-a-while, you hear a pop followed by a faint jingling as the liberated filament richochets inside the bulb). Power supplies aside, LEDs typically don’t fail with so much fanfare. Instead, they gradually lose brightness as they age. In the lighting industry, this is known as lumen depreciation, and is a separate failure mode from the catastrophic failure we usually think about.
As it turns out, lumen depreciation happens to incandescent bulbs, too. By the end of their 1,000 hour life, the output has typically dropped 10-15%, but nobody ever notices. With LEDs, the effect is much worse, and the output continues to fall as the device ages. At some point, the LED is no longer producing enough light to fulfill its original purpose, even though it hasn’t “burned out.” Research says that most users won’t notice a gradual 30% drop in light levels; accordingly the industry has defined L70, the time at which the output has dropped to 70% of its initial level, as an endpoint for measuring LED bulb lifetime. Based on how it’s estimated, this measure is typically stated as B50-L70, the point at which 50% of an initial sample of bulbs will retain 70% of their rated output.
Color Shift Happens But is Unpredictable
Something else happens as phosphor-based white LEDs age: they change color. The US DoE’s report on LED Luminaire Reliability: Impact of Color Shift defines four color-shifts (blue, yellow, red, and green) observed in LED lamps, although the yellow shift dominates in high-power white LEDs. This gradual yellowing of the light output results from phosphor cracking, delamination, and thermal effects, since the phosphor temperature can exceed that of the LED junction by 30 C – 50 °C. Modeling and predicting color shift in LEDs is a difficult task, with all of the mechanisms not yet fully understood. As a result, no standards have yet been established for accelerated testing or projection of color stability over time.
Eventually, these effects can be as detrimental to the function of the bulb as catastrophic failure. Given that lumen depreciation and color shift will in time render the LEDs ineffective, it may not make sense for manufacturers to design bulbs with very long electrical lifetimes. It’s possible that the reduced lifetime ratings we see on current bulbs simply reflect better knowledge about actual performance of existing LED technology over time.
Lumen Depreciation in the Kitchen
Heavily-used LED bulb (left) vs seldom-used bulb (right) after 8+ years.
I’ve seen lumen depreciation and color shift first-hand. In June of 2010, I replaced twelve 65W incandescent PAR30 floodlight bulbs in our kitchen with LED equivalents. At the same time, I also replaced three lights in another room with identical LED bulbs. These three bulbs see much less use, so in preparation for this article, I took one bulb from each location and put them side-by-side to see if I could tell the difference in output. The recessed light fixtures in both rooms are identical, so I expect that the bulbs are exposed to similar temperatures when on: any difference should only be due to aging effects. The results were shocking. Since these two bulbs were in different rooms, I never saw them side-by-side, so didn’t notice how bad the lumen depreciation and color shift had become. Sure, I knew they were dimmer and yellower than when I installed them, but had no idea it was this bad.
These bulbs were advertised with a 30,000 hour lifetime. I estimate the total use at 15,000-20,000 hours. During the 8 ½ years these were in service, one failed completely. Instead of replacing it with a newer bulb which would not match the color of the older ones (or replacing them all), I left that socket empty.
In the hardware store, I noticed new 9-watt BR30 LED bulbs for $5 each. The PAR30s I purchased in 2010 were $45 and consume 11 watts. A quick calculation says that the old bulbs paid for themselves more than three times over in electricity savings relative to the incandescents they replaced, and put that much less carbon into the atmosphere. They may well continue to burn for another 15,000 hours, but after weighing the degraded output and the cost to replace them with brighter, more efficient versions, I’m headed back to the store.
Making Sense of It All
This bulb has burned for over 1 million hours.
I’ve taken a look at some of the technical issues in LED lighting. Of course, there is more to LED bulbs than lifetime — color temperature and color rendering index (CRI) should factor into any purchase decision. There are also a number of larger problems involved, including issues of economics and sustainability. Some of these are addressed in J.B. MacKinnon’s 2016 article, The L.E.D. Quandary: Why There’s No Such Thing as “Built to Last”, in The New Yorker.
Certainly moving away from incandescent bulbs to more efficient lighting makes sense, but maybe we never really needed 100,000 hour bulbs in the first place. The lifetime of even 7,500-hour bulbs is long compared to the rapid pace of advance in lighting technology. Does it makes sense to buy expensive long-lived bulbs today, when better, cheaper, more efficient ones may be available in the near future?
The oldest surviving incandescent light, known as the Centennial Bulb (click to see a webcam of the lamp), is a dim carbon-filament bulb that’s been burning nearly continuously since 1901 — over 1 million hours. In its current state, it throws off as much light as a modern 4-watt incandescent. Would it have made sense to pay a premium for such “million hour bulbs” at the turn of the 20th century if we had any inkling of the advances that would come in the next 117 years?
The new $5 BR30 LED bulbs I just installed in the kitchen are amazingly bright and crisp: tests with a lux meter show the illuminance is more than 60% higher. Plus, they’ll more than pay for themselves in electricity savings compared to the old, inefficient LED bulbs they replaced.
Ask HN: Why is nearing completion so demotivating?
534 points by danschumann 9 months ago | hide | past | web | favorite | 165 comments
So I've been working on animation software for over two years. Part of me is very excited for launch so I can have money again ( I've been freelancing a minimum amount these last two years, and went car-less, moved, cut lifestyle into a third ). I should be wholeheartedly excited, but I'm feeling tired and generally sluggish regarding the project. I still make consistent progress, but it takes a lot of will power.
Part of me thinks it might be an aversion to sales. Part of me thinks this could have been built up so much in my head that anything short of overnight millions would be a disappointment (though I would be happy with 1500 bucks a month ), part of me thinks I might be scared of success ( or scared of surpassing my parents )(media attention), part of me fears the attacks that might come with success ( having something to lose ), part of it is the un-fun-ness of mature projects where the focus is on polish and bugs rather than broad new features, and part of me is scared of commitment: if I succeed I have to stick with this (freedom value), part of me wonders what will happen when more people become involved, if I will be able to maintain my creative direction, since I'm scratching my own itch. Part of me wonders if diet and exercise isn't a factor.
A combination, likely...
IronFall Invasion developer VD-Dev has lifted the lid on its next project, a racing game under the title RISE: Race The Future.
An arcade-style racer which draws on Sega Rally for inspiration, RISE is coming to a wide range of systems, including the Wii U, 3DS and (eventually) Nintendo NX. The developer is working with automotive designer Anthony Jannarelly, who is contributing some of his futuristic concept car designs to the game.
RISE is set in the near future where a new kind of "air lifting" wheel technology allows cars to race on all type of surfaces, including water. An arcade mode is included, as is a history mode which allows you to unlock a wide range of futuristic cars. There's even a plot behind the wheel-to-wheel action which will apparently reveal the real purpose behind RISE's "air lifting tech" vehicles.
RISE: Race The Future launches this winter, with the NX release coming in 2017.
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